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David Owen

The first question of justice, Rainer Forst argues, is the question of power. Because the focus of justice is the relations in which we stand to one another, it tracks relations of power conceived as the ability ‘ to influence, use, determine, occupy, or even seal off the space of reasons for others ’. 1 Justice does not require the absence of power, rather it requires that persons stand in relations of equality with respect to the exercise of power – something that Forst marks with the idea of a right to justification. Thus, in any scheme of rule, what

in Toleration, power and the right to justification
Melissa S. Williams

I The practice of justification Rainer Forst’s constructivist theory of justice offers a compelling account of what it means to act morally. At the heart of human morality, he argues, is the commitment to demonstrate our respect for other persons as rational beings who are also finite and vulnerable. Respect for others’ rational nature demands that we act towards them only in a manner that could be justified by generally valid reasons. Responsiveness to others’ vulnerability – which is always particular, unique to each individual – demands that we engage in a

in Toleration, power and the right to justification
Rainer Forst in dialogue
Series: Critical Powers
Author:

Rainer Forst's Toleration in Conflict (published in English 2013) is the most important historical and philosophical analysis of toleration of the past several decades. Reconstructing the entire history of the concept, it provides a forceful account of the tensions and dilemmas that pervade the discourse of toleration. In his lead essay for this volume, Forst revisits his work on toleration and situates it in relation to both the concept of political liberty and his wider project of a critical theory of justification. Interlocutors Teresa M. Bejan, Chandran Kukathas, John Horton, Daniel Weinstock, Melissa S. Williams, Patchen Markell and David Owen then critically examine Forst's reconstruction of toleration, his account of political liberty and the form of critical theory that he articulates in his work on such political concepts. The volume concludes with Forst’s reply to his critics.

Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

seem, since we may proceed by analogy and write down continuous-time analogues of the results of Section 29.1 . In the appendix to this chapter, we move beyond analogy and give direct justifications of the main results. To proceed with our analogy to the discrete-time case, we introduce a variable λ known as the costate variable, and the function

in Mathematics for Economists
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

Mathematically rigorous arguments have two ingredients. First, assumptions must be spelt out carefully. In particular, this requires that definitions be precise. In the preceding 30 chapters we have been reasonably careful about stating assumptions; the main exceptions have occurred in calculus, where we often assumed implicitly and without justification that functions could be differentiated or integrated. Much of mathematical

in Mathematics for Economists
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

probability theory worthwhile. It is often useful to think of probability in terms of long-run relative frequency, for example the tendency of the proportion of Heads in a large number of tosses of a fair coin to approach 1 ∕ 2 . There is a good mathematical justification for this called the Law of Large Numbers, which

in Mathematics for Economists
Abstract only
Thomas Wartenberg

Film theorists and philosophers have both contended that narrative fiction films cannot present philosophical arguments. After canvassing a range of objections to this claim, this article defends the view that films are able to present philosophical thought experiments that can function as enthymemic arguments. An interpretation of Michel Gondry‘s Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004) is given in which the films criticism of the technology of memory erasure is just such a thought experiment, one that functions as a counter-example to utilitarianism as a theory for the justification of social practices.

Film Studies
Abstract only
The Rejection of Enlightenment in the Unreliable Souvenirs of Charles Nodier
Matthew Gibson

Charles Nodier (1780–1844), librarian, occultist, entomologist and pioneer of the Fantastic in France was also a consummate liar in his many biographical souvenirs, a fact which led Bryan Rogers to understand him as attempting tofind consolation in a superior truth in his memoirs to that of his own lived experience, while Hélène Lowe-Dupas has remarked more on his use of the language of theatre in these memoirs in order, amongst other things, to render experience less chaotic. By detailing the nature of his lies in two souvenirs Les Prisons de Paris sous le Consulat (1826) and Suites dun mandat darrêt (1834), the current article seeks to locate the falsehoods as being more firmly rooted in his symbiotic rationale for Fantastic fiction, and demonstrate how his lies have a more scientific justification, helping him to extend historical truth before it is shown to be demonstrable.

Gothic Studies
Building High-tech Castles in the Air?
Anisa Jabeen Nasir Jafar

push from many corners of the humanitarian sphere to develop electronic documentation for this setting, and some teams have achieved this, at least in part. However we have to be very clear why we are doing this. If we are doing this simply because we can, that is not a good enough justification: electronic documentation is cost-heavy in terms of equipment and training and is also prone to failures which can impede speed and efficiency. Many teams simply will not have the resources and infrastructure to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

West. A new political economy of humanitarian aid developed, reinforcing the symbiosis between humanitarianism and the state. The sufficiency of a humanitarian minimum became justification for cuts in public expenditure, particularly as NGOs offered themselves as subcontractors for the provision of essential services at home and abroad. Western governments placed pressure on NGOs to carry out neomanagerial reforms that would promote cultural synergies with their own overseas aid departments, now reorganised according to the business

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs