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The dynamic processes of knowledge production in archaeology and elsewhere in the humanities and social sciences are increasingly viewed within the context of negotiation, cooperation and exchange, as the collaborative effort of groups, clusters and communities of scholars. Shifting focus from the individual scholar to the wider social contexts of her work, this volume investigates the importance of informal networks and conversation in the creation of knowledge about the past, and takes a closer look at the dynamic interaction and exchange that takes place between individuals, groups and clusters of scholars in the wider social settings of scientific work. Various aspects of and mechanisms at work behind the interaction and exchange that takes place between the individual scholar and her community, and the creative processes that such encounters trigger, are critically examined in eleven chapters which draw on a wide spectrum of examples from Europe and North America: from early modern antiquarians to archaeological societies and practitioners at work during the formative years of the modern archaeological disciplines and more recent examples from the twentieth century. The individual chapters engage with theoretical approaches to scientific creativity, knowledge production and interaction such as sociology and geographies of science, and actor-network theory (ANT) in their examination of individual–collective interplay. The book caters to readers both from within and outside the archaeological disciplines; primarily intended for researchers, teachers and students in archaeology, anthropology, classics and the history of science, it will also be of interest to the general reader.

The case of Oscar Montelius and Italy
Anna Gustavsson

6 Geographies of networks and knowledge production: the case of Oscar Montelius and Italy Anna Gustavsson In this chapter, I aim to highlight the potential of thinking geographically when studying networks and the production of archaeological knowledge, by considering the contacts in Italy of the Swedish archaeologist Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, see Figure 6.2) and his work on Italian prehistory.1 Oscar Montelius was a pioneer of prehistoric archaeology from the late nineteenth century onwards. He is mainly known for his work on typology and chronology. His Om

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The case of Le Menagier de Paris
Glenn Burger

16 2 Knowledge production in the late-​medieval married household: the case of Le Menagier de Paris Glenn D. Burger At the beginning of the Menagier de Paris, the much older husband-​ narrator reminds his young wife of a request that she made to him one night shortly after their wedding: My dear, because you were only fifteen years old the week we were married, you asked that I be indulgent about your youth and ­inexperience until you had seen and learned more. You expressly promised to listen carefully and to apply yourself wholeheartedly to preserving my

in Household knowledges in late-medieval England and France
Liam Harney and Jane Wills

second was designed to develop solutions to pressing concerns. In the event, two different groups of people were involved; twenty-four people took part in phase one and nineteen in phase two. However limited in scale and depth, the E14 expedition provided a mechanism to think about what pragmatic social science might look like. The research was focused on understanding the infrastructure needed to allow people to engage in community-based relationships created for research, knowledge production and action. It highlighted questions about the role to be played by

in The power of pragmatism
Knowledge production and social inquiry
Editors: Jane Wills and Robert W. Lake

This book makes the case for a pragmatist approach to the practice of social inquiry and knowledge production. Through diverse examples from multiple disciplines, contributors explore the power of pragmatism to inform a practice of inquiry that is democratic, community-centred, problem-oriented and experimental. Drawing from both classical and neo-pragmatist perspectives, the book advances a pragmatist sensibility in which truth and knowledge are contingent rather than universal, made rather than found, provisional rather than dogmatic, subject to continuous experimentation rather than ultimate proof and verified in their application in action rather than in the accuracy of their representation of an antecedent reality. The power of pragmatism offers a path forward for mobilizing the practice of inquiry in social research, exploring the implications of pragmatism for the process of knowledge production.

Sophie Roborgh

Monitoring of attacks on healthcare has made great strides in the past decade, even if improvement in information has not necessarily resulted in changes on the ground. However, important questions on the knowledge production process continue to be under-explored, including those pertaining to the objectives of monitoring efforts. What does our data actually tell us? Are we missing the (data) point? This paper explores several monitoring mechanisms, and analyses the limitations of the data-gathering exercise, affecting the ability of healthcare workers to share their experiences. By drawing on the experiences of those involved in the medical-humanitarian response in non-government controlled areas in Syria, these dynamics are further brought to the fore, advocating for a more discerning approach in the use of data for such disparate goals as analysis on patterns of attacks (and their implications), advocacy, and accountability.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

order. Eurocentrism has taught us to see the potential end of an era in every relative change in Western power. Thinking about the role of humanitarianism today requires that we don’t reproduce or unwittingly celebrate Western-led order by mourning the end of a history that never actually existed. Given past and present non-Western experiences of liberal order, we might ask: what’s there to mourn? My personal experiences of research and knowledge production regarding humanitarianism have reinforced in me an anti-colonial ethos – an intellectual

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Brendan T. Lawson

of knowledge production of transnational crime and armed conflict. Andreas Morten Jerven’s (2013) Poor Numbers lays bare the problems of African economic data and the ramifications that these uncertainties have for making conclusions about international development. Sally Merry (2016) , in The Seductions of Quantification , diligently and carefully documents the difference between rights-based indicators and the localised experiences of those

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanity and Solidarity
Tanja R. Müller and Róisín Read

sector, Lawson highlights four strands of critique. Firstly, he highlights the implications of quantification for knowledge production raising questions about the definitional and logistical challenges with counting in the humanitarian arena. He argues that it is important to carry out ethnographic and material analyses to understand the fascination with data and information technology. Secondly, drawing in part on the work of Dan Maxwell and others, he argues that it is vital we interrogate the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Pragmatism between rationalism and sentimentality 
Robert W. Lake

various means (Barnes, Chapter 5 ). This approach to knowledge production requires an openness to multiple and variegated ontologies and perspectives to enrich the conversation and increase the probability of success (Saegert, Chapter 6 ). Moreover, this pragmatic orientation transcends topical specialisations and disciplinary boundaries, offering a framework and an approach to knowledge production that is not restricted to a particular substantive field (as illustrated by the range of disciplines, geographical homes and topics addressed by our authors). Pragmatism

in The power of pragmatism