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Popular culture is invariably a vehicle for the dominant ideas of its age. Never was this more true than in the late-19th and early 20th centuries, when it reflected the nationalist and imperialist ideologies current throughout Europe. This book examines the various media through which nationalist ideas were conveyed in late-Victorian and Edwardian times in the theatre, "ethnic" shows, juvenile literature, education and the iconography of popular art. Nineteenth-century music hall was known as the 'fount of patriotism'. A heroic and romantic vision of Empire helped to widen the appeal of British imperialism, which newspaper and magazine editors insisted on communicating to the new mass reading public. Juvenile fiction included Victorian children's books, and very few seemed deliberately anti-imperialist. The book offers a bridge between the pre-1914 period and the interwar years and between the public school and state school systems. It discusses the case of Peter Lobengula as a focus for racial attributes in late Victorian and Edwardian times. The imperial economic vision lay ready to hand for the publicists and public relations men who saw the Empire Marketing Board as one of the great opportunities in the inter-war years to develop their craft. The book also argues that whereas the Scout movement was created in the atmosphere of defensive Empire in the Edwardian period, Scouting ideology underwent a significant change in the post-war years. Girl Guides remind us that the role of girls and women in youth organisations and imperial ideologies has been too little studied.

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West Wales and Swaledale and the sequences of migration
Eric Richards

genesis of international mass migration The degree of anger created by land changes in Wales is not to be underestimated. Alfred Russel Wallace, the renowned scientific thinker of late Victorian times, was a sharp observer of rural changes in Wales. In his early career he was a land surveyor and with his brother was engaged on work connected with the Tithe Act and the General Enclosure Act. ‘The underlying principles – or lack of principles – outraged Wallace’. The cottagers living on the moors had previously been able to keep a cow and a few sheep but their access was

in The genesis of international mass migration
Gordon Pirie

Guest as Secretary of State for Air in Bonar Law’s Conservative administra tion. Unlike his predecessor, Hoare would become a major figure in Empire aviation. Forty-two years of age at the time of his appointment, Hoare had grown up in a wealthy banking family. He was educated at Harrow and Oxford where the cloistered education in late-Victorian times taught fair play, cultivated a naive romanticism

in Air empire
Patrick Chaplin

licensees, including the first organised brewery darts leagues and the publication of a book on lawful games by the Licensed Victuallers’ Gazette Office, but these were outnumbered by elements working against the development of the game, which included alternative leisure forms, especially the cinema. Despite clear legal judgements dating back to late Victorian times, the legality of darts continued to be raised in court cases – particularly with regard to gaming – and by unsympathetic, temperance-influenced licensing benches during the period. Because of its influence on

in Darts in England, 1900–39
John M. Mackenzie

provided the greatest opportunity to disseminate printed and visual ephemera of all kinds, for the high point of these exhibitions, the almost continuous sequence from late Victorian times to the First World War, together with the great imperial and colonial examples between the wars, coincided with the peak of production of pamphlets, booklets, postcards, and advertising matter. Much has been written about

in Propaganda and Empire
Locality, brotherhood and the nature of tolerance
Tony Kushner

juxtaposed without any awareness shown of the minority history which they so neatly encapsulated: In late Victorian times, Abraham, the jeweller, had a clock controlled by Greenwich … At Emanuel’s … a large clock projected high up across the pavement and was very helpful to passers-by. 122 In a section ironically devoted by Sandell to timekeeping and loss, the process of forgetting itself was inadvertently revealed. As Jonathan Boyarin suggests, ‘Memory – the free-association counterpart of forgetting – has become

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066