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Editor: Grant Tapsell

The later Stuart church inherited many of the problems that had been faced by its antecedents at institutional, social, and intellectual levels, but was also rocked by several new and profound challenges. It is important, therefore, to locate the established church within a long-term framework of gradual developments and sharp disjunctures. This book offers an account of how clerics and laymen experienced the events of the period between the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the Hanoverian succession of 1714. Politics and religion under the later Stuarts were powerfully intermingled, rather than sharply differentiated categories. Some clerics exercised considerable secular power, whilst many laymen dictated the terms of the church's position at local and national levels. Indeed it could hardly have been otherwise when religious beliefs were made into a shibboleth for holding public office and clerics expounded political maxims from pulpits across the land. Having sketched in the basic framework of relevant events in the later Stuart period, and their historical and geographical contexts, it remains to conclude by drawing them together. Three themes emerge as paramount because of their capacity to ignite contemporary discussion in the light of past experience. These include: the conflicting sources of authority for the Church of England, the relations between clergy and laymen, and the question of how successfully the church exercised its pastoral function.

Jeremy Gregory

The presence of the Church of England in North America offers an interesting case study of the later Stuart church, where some of the issues and problems encountered by the church in Old England were transplanted to British North America, but also where the radically different religious, political, and socio-cultural contexts across the Atlantic threw up new challenges for the church. This chapter will focus

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714
Clare Jackson

threatened to outnumber members of the established church. All three kingdoms had, meanwhile, suffered the trauma of the proselytising ambitions of the last Catholic monarch, James VII and II. By 1711, therefore, Travers’s vision of one Episcopal Church serving three kingdoms was distinctly precarious. Presented broadly chronologically, this chapter examines the fluctuating fortunes of the later Stuart churches in Scotland and

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714
Abstract only
The later Stuart church in context
Grant Tapsell

hand, & Popery, Symonie & Atheisme on ye other hand. (William Gulston, bishop of Bristol, 1683) 2 The later Stuart church inherited many of the problems that had been faced by its antecedents at institutional, social, and intellectual levels, but was also rocked by several new and profound challenges. 3 It is important, therefore, to locate the established church within a

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714
Abstract only
The Church of England and the royal supremacy
Jacqueline Rose

1660 and 1688 in particular, it was courted by dissenters and exploited by Catholics. The church bowed to its power and swore to uphold royal prerogatives, yet insisted on the kingly duty to uphold the episcopal establishment. This was not a world of creeping secularisation or the onward march of pluralism, but of fierce ecclesiological warfare. Much of the story of the later Stuart church is illuminated by the clash between

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714
The clergy of the later Stuart Church
Grant Tapsel

basis. How successfully did the clergy of the later Stuart church discharge their core function as spiritual pastors to the people? Until relatively recently, most historical scholarship in the field focused on the administrative structures, career patterns, and financial sinews of the church, especially its higher clergy. This was hardly surprising when some of the central archives for any historical enquiry into the later

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714
Tony Claydon

ourselves closer to the true worldview of the late Stuart church. Perhaps, also, we dispel two myths about the whole early modern period. First, the English were not the insular and xenophobic folk of much commentary. 52 Clerics, and indeed a much wider public, were keenly aware of what was going on in Europe, and were fascinated because they saw struggles there as part of their own domestic disputes. Second, Protestant Anglicanism was only a highly

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714
John Spurr

that was singing psalms as a congregation or, as in the early eighteenth century, forming lay parish choirs and bands. 20 All of this means that an inquiry – even one as preliminary as this chapter – into the laity’s engagement with the later Stuart Church of England needs to choose its ground carefully. Here I am concerned not with the level of lay support for the Church of England (which may well have been limited), but with

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714
Nicholas Tyacke

Between 1660 and 1714, Laudians and Latitudinarians had vied for supremacy, with Calvinism increasingly becoming the preserve of Protestant dissenters. During these same years the dream faded of a restored Church of England embracing all manner of Protestants, as the balance of forces shifted in one direction and then another. Exemplifying the shift in the balance of theological forces is the replacement of William Sancroft by John Tillotson as archbishop of Canterbury in 1691. The doctrinal standard of the English church became the Elizabethan Thirty-nine Articles, the ambiguous phrasing of which had in the past allowed Calvinists and Arminians to draw rival conclusions concerning the theology of grace. The 'Catholick faith' of the Church of England was threatened, so Francis Atterbury claimed in 1697, by a welter of 'Deists, Socinians, Latitudinarians, deniers of mysteries and pretended explainers of them'.

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714
George Southcombe

The Restoration church and dissent might continue to be conceptualised, in terms used by Collinson of the earlier church and Puritanism, as two halves 'of a stressful relationship', defining and shaping each other. In their relationships with the Church of England, dissenters came to rely on a vigorous, often polemical, print culture that represented and conceptualised the church in robust terms as a persecuting authority. Patrick Collinson dated the end of the birth pangs of Protestant England to the Restoration. The Welsh Fifth Monarchist Vavasor Powell, entering into the debates about the Restoration church settlement of 1660-1661, produced a pamphlet against the prayer-book and episcopacy that went through four editions in those years. The Presbyterian poet Robert Wild, who had produced robust verses, larded with scatological humour, throughout the early years of the Restoration, wrote his The Loyal Nonconformist in response to the Five Mile Act.

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714