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Author: Deborah Youngs

One of the key aims of this book is to offer a synthesis of the main findings of current research on age. It is intended as an outline survey and consequently the scope of the book is deliberately broad: it covers two centuries, considers the large land mass of Western Europe with its diverse languages, customs and cultures, and ranges across the social spectrum. The book focuses solely on the Christian West, including consideration on the extent to which social rank influenced life expectancy, the methods and goals of upbringing, marriage patterns and funerary memorialisation. The book also demonstrates how extensive that range can be. Examples are drawn from manorial accounts, tax assessments, spiritual writings, didactic literature, romances, elegies, art and architecture. The main thrust is that age formed an essential part of a person's identity in late medieval Europe. During adolescence, men and women progressively took on their adult roles. Three chapters are devoted to educating girls. The book discusses young people's period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It draws attention to pious young women who fought against marriage and wanted a chaste life. Divergences between northern and southern Europe in terms of marriage patterns, family formation, opportunities for women and attitudes towards death and its rituals are discussed. The book shows that attitudes towards the undeveloped young meant that children had few legal responsibilities. Another aim of the book is to consider the changing opportunities and possibilities for people as they progressed through life.

Two sides of the same unequal coin?
Asim A. Sheikh

imposition of liability upon a plaintiff­/patient? Can a medical practitioner in a negligence action against him or her, make a plea of contributory negligence against the plaintiff­/patient, for example, in a situation where an adverse outcome occurs or is contributed to due to a decision made by the patient? This chapter begins by outlining the duties and responsibilities of doctors and the development of the understanding of the doctor–patient relationship as one of partnership. It then analyses the implications of this, looking at the legal responsibilities of the

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare
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Maritime men in an iron world
Frances Steel

legislatures the right to establish their own crew certification procedures and the power to regulate their own coasting trades. New Zealand’s first domestic Shipping and Seamen’s Act 1877 defined the legal responsibilities of employers and employees and outlined penalties for breaches. Acts of 1894 and 1896 set out manning schedules for steamers trading in New Zealand waters. Crew

in Oceania under steam
Steffen Mau

serious objection related to the question of whether Shachar’s conclusions are politically feasible. As necessary and normatively convincing as her call for corresponding legal responsibility and shifting border control might be, it seems to me highly improbable that this will actually come to pass. The extraterritorialization of border controls is driven not only by questions of the greater effectiveness of “remote control.” Another key factor is the attempt on the part of liberal states to rid themselves of their normative self-obligations. Accepting human rights and

in The shifting border
Open Access (free)
Deaths at sea and unidentified bodies in Lesbos
Iosif Kovras and Simon Robins

migrants in a plethora of ways, most notably through the idea that the sea and its dangers to migrants are doing the job of defending the EU’s borders against the migrant invasion. This resonates with European states’ externalisation of elements of border and immigration control to the territory of states of migrant departure or transit, and to the militarisation of the Mediterranean. The deaths at sea, as a part of this externalisation, successfully delocalise migrant deaths, removing them from the legal and moral purview of Europeans. The legal responsibility for

in Migrating borders and moving times
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Mary Donnelly and Claire Murray

9780719099465 PRINT.indd 3 12/10/2015 15:59 4 Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare Asim Sheikh looks at autonomy from a different perspective, exploring the possible imposition of legal responsibilities on patients arising from the legal recognition of the right of autonomy. He notes that healthcare practice is slowly moving away from the paternalistic model of dealing with patients and explores the possible consequences of this in the context of medical negligence litigation, including the possibility that patients may be liable for contributory negligence. Both

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare
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The compromising citizenry
Wing-Chung Ho

local systems, another factor which prevents sick coal miners from enacting rightful resistance is the employers’ strategies in shrugging off their legal responsibilities to compensate CWP sufferers. During fieldwork, I was told that the mine operators usually gained the upper hand in manipulating the coal miners, who face insurmountable difficulties in pursuing their rights through the court. For example, when asked whether coal miners in Liangping generally knew about the severity of their disease, one peasant said: We do not know it very clearly. We worked, and

in Occupational health and social estrangement in China
Masahiro Mogaki

since the 2000s a decline of civil servants’ power has occurred. The transformation of regulatory capacity can be understood as the rise and decline or the adaptation of responsible civil servants through shaping a variation of the Japanese regulatory state in ICT regulation after the 1980s. The MPT’s approach just after liberalisation can be characterised as strategic/discretionary, with a wide range of legal responsibility to exercise draconian regulation, such as strict market entry examination. It was a response to the transformation of state power in the sector

in Understanding governance in contemporary Japan
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Ginger S. Frost

households. In addition, these children moved frequently from relative to relative, in and out of foster care, and in and out of institutions. Illegitimate relatives were often left behind, to workhouses or charity homes. Since few people had legal responsibility to provide for them, they were the easiest to ‘lift out’. The experience of being unwanted, of having no place to belong, left life-long wounds. Still, illegitimacy was a contributing factor for children’s emotional problems, but not the only reason for them. Legitimate children who grew up in institutions or who

in Illegitimacy in English law and society,1860–1930
Women in debt litigation
Cathryn Spence

identified by Muldrew with regard to his sources is that the legal responsibility held by a husband for debts contracted by those in his household means that the role of wives has been underestimated in the debt and credit networks of which these households were a part, and that wives were, in actuality, j  36  J Wo me n in de bt an d l it ig at io n much more active than the sources indicate.14 The percentages uncovered by Muldrew, however, suggest a strong correlation between the experience of Scottish and English women in debt litigation in the late sixteenth and

in Women, credit, and debt in early modern Scotland