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Melanie Klinkner

In the aftermath of conflict and gross human rights violations, victims have a right to know what happened to their loved ones. Such a right is compromised if mass graves are not adequately protected to preserve evidence, facilitate identification and repatriation of the dead and enable a full and effective investigation to be conducted. Despite guidelines for investigations of the missing, and legal obligations under international law, it is not expressly clear how these mass graves are best legally protected and by whom. This article asks why, to date, there are no unified mass-grave protection guidelines that could serve as a model for states, authorities or international bodies when faced with gross human rights violations or armed conflicts resulting in mass graves. The paper suggests a practical agenda for working towards a more comprehensive set of legal guidelines to protect mass graves.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Gender Norm Change during Displacement?
Michelle Lokot

, industrialisation, legal protections and changes in family structures ( Moghadam, 2003 : 25). It is not necessarily displacement itself that causes change; contestations about gender may already be occurring. Scholars have critiqued descriptions of gendered changes during displacement that emphasise the need for modernity. Humanitarian actors have been critiqued as colonial for using European modernity as the stance from which the lives of ‘others’ are analysed ( Peace

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Crisis, reform and recovery

The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 shook the foundations of the global economy and what began as a localised currency crisis soon engulfed the entire Asian region. This book explores what went wrong and how did the Asian economies long considered 'miracles' respond, among other things. The combined effects of growing unemployment, rising inflation, and the absence of a meaningful social safety-net system, pushed large numbers of displaced workers and their families into poverty. Resolving Thailand's notorious non-performing loans problem will depend on the fortunes of the country's real economy, and on the success of Thai Asset Management Corporation (TAMC). Under International Monetary Fund's (IMF) oversight, the Indonesian government has also taken steps to deal with the massive debt problem. After Indonesian Debt Restructuring Agency's (INDRA) failure, the Indonesian government passed the Company Bankruptcy and Debt Restructuring and/or Rehabilitation Act to facilitate reorganization of illiquid, but financially viable companies. Economic reforms in Korea were started by Kim Dae-Jung. the partial convertibility of the Renminbi (RMB), not being heavy burdened with short-term debt liabilities, and rapid foreign trade explains China's remarkable immunity to the "Asian flu". The proposed sovereign debt restructuring mechanism (SDRM) (modeled on corporate bankruptcy law) would allow countries to seek legal protection from creditors that stand in the way of restructuring, and in exchange debtors would have to negotiate with their creditors in good faith.

Abstract only
Examining Ireland’s failure to regulate embryonic stem cell research
Ciara Staunton

restrictive approach, a permissive approach or an intermediate approach. An analysis of the current status of ESCR will demonstrate that although the Irish courts seem to support the intermediate approach, the lack of legislative guidance has left the embryo without legal protection. This chapter argues that it is time for a national discussion on the status of the embryo. Such a discussion is necessary for a regulatory framework that both protects the embryo and accommodates ESCR. Ethical status of the embryo The importance of establishing the moral status of the embryo

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare
David W. Gutzke

accelerated these social trends. Passed in 1970 in response to Britain’s entry into the European Common Market, the Equal Pay Act made women’s work better paid.7 Several years later the Sex Discrimination Act outlawed discrimination in vital areas of education, public facilities and advertising. Finally, the Employment Protection Act, enacted also in 1975, gave motherhood legal protection in the job market: no longer could an employer either sack women for taking maternity leave or refuse them their former jobs if they returned within four months. Globalization also

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century
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The exception to the rule
Dana Wessell Lightfoot

in return. The contract then uses language associated with the germanía regime stating that the couple wish to ‘make and concede between us fraternity and germanía’, concerning the rest of the property they hold now and what they may hold in the future.22 As in Castile, the goal of these couples was to use the dotal contract to govern any dowry assets, and the germanía one for any other property held by them at the time of marriage, as well as any assets gained during the unions. The dotal contract gave Johana and Brigida legal protection for their dowries

in Women, dowries and agency
Gearóid Ó Tuathaigh

– social or geographical.22 The repeal of the corn laws and the triumph of free trade in 1846 (ensuring that thereafter Irish agriculture would supply a ‘cheap-food’ British market) were quickly followed by measures easing freer sale of encumbered land.23 The emergence, during and in the aftermath of the famine crisis, of an intensified demand for legal protection for tenant right is hardly surprising. 03_Fergus_Ch-1.indd 9 7/26/2013 1:11:09 PM MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 07/26/2013, SPi 10 SURVEYS Anxieties generated by the crisis (evictions, consolidation

in Land questions in modern Ireland
Cara Diver

and effectively demonstrated that marital violence was a social problem in Ireland. The new consciousness regarding marital violence ultimately led to improved legal protections for victims of family violence and increased options for women seeking to escape violent marriages. A society transformed The reforms of the 1960s and 1970s only succeeded because of larger changes in the overall social, political, and economic environment of Ireland. By now it has become a truism to say that the period from the 1960s to the 1980s was one of rapid transformation, affecting

in Marital violence in post-independence Ireland, 1922–96
Hepburn Sacha

for domestic workers, legislation that was amended in subsequent years to extend its scope. Zambia’s approach contrasted with several other southern African nations, including Botswana and Zimbabwe, where protective legislation was extended to domestic service during the 1980s, and Namibia and South Africa, where legal protections for domestic workers were introduced following the transition to democracy

in Home economics
Margaret Brazier
Emma Cave
, and
Rob Heywood

Doctors, like priests and lawyers, must be able to keep secrets. For medical care to be effective, for patients to trust their doctor, patients must have confidence that they can talk frankly to them. This chapter considers the legal protections of confidential information, focusing on the common law protections of confidentiality and its recent developments to protect privacy and the latest statutory protections of data protection.

in Medicine, patients and the law