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One of the key aims of this book is to offer a synthesis of the main findings of current research on age. It is intended as an outline survey and consequently the scope of the book is deliberately broad: it covers two centuries, considers the large land mass of Western Europe with its diverse languages, customs and cultures, and ranges across the social spectrum. The book focuses solely on the Christian West, including consideration on the extent to which social rank influenced life expectancy, the methods and goals of upbringing, marriage patterns and funerary memorialisation. The book also demonstrates how extensive that range can be. Examples are drawn from manorial accounts, tax assessments, spiritual writings, didactic literature, romances, elegies, art and architecture. The main thrust is that age formed an essential part of a person's identity in late medieval Europe. During adolescence, men and women progressively took on their adult roles. Three chapters are devoted to educating girls. The book discusses young people's period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It draws attention to pious young women who fought against marriage and wanted a chaste life. Divergences between northern and southern Europe in terms of marriage patterns, family formation, opportunities for women and attitudes towards death and its rituals are discussed. The book shows that attitudes towards the undeveloped young meant that children had few legal responsibilities. Another aim of the book is to consider the changing opportunities and possibilities for people as they progressed through life.

Two sides of the same unequal coin?
Asim A. Sheikh

imposition of liability upon a plaintiff­/patient? Can a medical practitioner in a negligence action against him or her, make a plea of contributory negligence against the plaintiff­/patient, for example, in a situation where an adverse outcome occurs or is contributed to due to a decision made by the patient? This chapter begins by outlining the duties and responsibilities of doctors and the development of the understanding of the doctor–patient relationship as one of partnership. It then analyses the implications of this, looking at the legal responsibilities of the

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare
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Maritime men in an iron world
Frances Steel

legislatures the right to establish their own crew certification procedures and the power to regulate their own coasting trades. New Zealand’s first domestic Shipping and Seamen’s Act 1877 defined the legal responsibilities of employers and employees and outlined penalties for breaches. Acts of 1894 and 1896 set out manning schedules for steamers trading in New Zealand waters. Crew

in Oceania under steam
Steffen Mau

serious objection related to the question of whether Shachar’s conclusions are politically feasible. As necessary and normatively convincing as her call for corresponding legal responsibility and shifting border control might be, it seems to me highly improbable that this will actually come to pass. The extraterritorialization of border controls is driven not only by questions of the greater effectiveness of “remote control.” Another key factor is the attempt on the part of liberal states to rid themselves of their normative self-obligations. Accepting human rights and

in The shifting border
Open Access (free)
Deaths at sea and unidentified bodies in Lesbos
Iosif Kovras
Simon Robins

migrants in a plethora of ways, most notably through the idea that the sea and its dangers to migrants are doing the job of defending the EU’s borders against the migrant invasion. This resonates with European states’ externalisation of elements of border and immigration control to the territory of states of migrant departure or transit, and to the militarisation of the Mediterranean. The deaths at sea, as a part of this externalisation, successfully delocalise migrant deaths, removing them from the legal and moral purview of Europeans. The legal responsibility for

in Migrating borders and moving times

Feudalism, venality, and revolution is about the political and social order revealed by the monarchy’s most ambitious effort to reform its institutions, the introduction of participatory assemblies at all levels of the government. It should draw the attention of anyone interested in the sort of social and political conditions that predisposed people to make the French Revolution. In particular, according to Alexis de Tocqueville’s influential work on the Old Regime and the French Revolution, royal centralization had so weakened the feudal power of the nobles that their remaining privileges became glaringly intolerable to commoners. Feudalism, venality, and revolution challenges this theory by showing that when Louis XVI convened assemblies of landowners in the late 1770s and 1780s to discuss policies needed to resolve the budgetary crisis, he faced widespread opposition from lords and office holders. These elites regarded the assemblies as a challenge to their hereditary power over commoners. The monarchy incorporated an administration of seigneurial jurisdictions and venal offices. Lordships and offices upheld inequality on behalf of the nobility and bred the discontent evident in the French Revolution. These findings will alter the way scholars think about the Old Regime society and state and should therefore find a large market among graduate students and professors of European history.

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This book explains the direct link between the structure of the corporation and its limitless capacity for ecological destruction. It argues that we need to find the most effective means of ending the corporation’s death grip over us. The corporation is a problem, not merely because it devours natural resources, pollutes and accelerates the carbon economy. As this book argues, the constitutional structure of the corporation eradicates the possibility that we can put the protection of the planet before profit. A fight to get rid of the corporations that have brought us to this point may seem an impossible task at the moment, but it is necessary for our survival. It is hardly radical to suggest that if something is killing us, we should over-power it and make it stop. We need to kill the corporation before it kills us.

Protection of animals in nineteenth-century Britain

This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.

Cheshire on the eve of civil war
Authors: and

This book aims to revisit the county study as a way into understanding the dynamics of the English civil war during the 1640s. It explores gentry culture and the extent to which early Stuart Cheshire could be said to be a ‘county community’. It investigates the responses of the county’s governing elite and puritan religious establishment to highly polarising interventions by the central government and Laudian ecclesiastical authorities during Charles I’s Personal Rule. The second half of the book provides a rich and detailed analysis of the petitioning movements and side-taking in Cheshire during 1641-42. This important contribution to understanding the local origins and outbreak of civil war in England will be of interest to all students and scholars studying the English Revolution.

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Mary Donnelly
Claire Murray

9780719099465 PRINT.indd 3 12/10/2015 15:59 4 Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare Asim Sheikh looks at autonomy from a different perspective, exploring the possible imposition of legal responsibilities on patients arising from the legal recognition of the right of autonomy. He notes that healthcare practice is slowly moving away from the paternalistic model of dealing with patients and explores the possible consequences of this in the context of medical negligence litigation, including the possibility that patients may be liable for contributory negligence. Both

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare