This book examines the changing nature of Catholicism in modern Scotland by placing a significant emphasis on women religious. It highlights the defining role they played in the transformation and modernisation of the Catholic Church as it struggled to cope with unprecedented levels of Irish migration. The institutions and care-networks that these women established represented a new age in social welfare that served to connect the church with Scotland's emerging civil society. The book examines how the church reacted to liberalism, legislative reform, the rise of evangelicalism and the continued growth of Irish migration between the late 1820s and the late 1850s. A mutual aversion to the Irish and a loyalty to nation and state inspired a recusant and ultramontane laity to invest heavily in a programme of church transformation and development. The recruitment of the Ursulines of Jesus, the first community of nuns to return to Scotland since the Reformation, is highlighted as a significant step towards legitimising Catholic respectability. The book focuses on the recruitment and influence of women religious. It also focuses on the issue of identity by considering how gender and ethnicity influenced the development of these religious communities and how this was connected with the broader campaign to transform Catholic culture in Scotland. The book also examines the development of Catholic education in Scotland between the late 1840s and 1900 and prioritises the role played by women religious in this process.
Reforms to marital violence
policy and legislation, 1970–96
The coalition of feminist activity, government reform, and a profound
cultural transformation greatly increased the options available to victims of marital violence in the final three decades of the twentieth
century. The feminist movement brought pressure to bear upon the
government, who for the first time acknowledged the problem of marital violence and took action against it. From the 1970s onwards, the
Oireachtas passed a number of legislativereforms, for which Action,
Information, Motivation (AIM
their followers to maintain a quiet
and conservative profile and dedicate themselves to proving their loyalty to
crown and country. It also explains how their efforts to contain political activity
among the laity were frustrated by the rising star of Ireland’s Daniel O’Connell
and how, as calls for Catholic emancipation grew louder, the Scottish clergy,
anxious to avoid inflaming anti-Catholic antagonism, reacted with increasing
hostility towards the Irish migrants.
The second chapter examines how the church reacted to liberalism, legislativereform, the rise of
favour of any candidate for any public appointment will automatically disqualify
the candidate for the position which he is seeking.43
The vivacity by which one of the most influential pieces of legislativereform
was prosecuted in these turbulent Civil War years of the young state was
striking. The enduring impact of this meritocracy policy led to a professionalised and competent civil service, defined by rule based behaviour, and
detached from local and national political considerations. The assumption of
impartial recruitment, rather than patronage, into
Embryo research, cloning, assisted conception, neonatal care, saviour siblings, organ transplants, drug trials – modern developments have transformed the field of medicine almost beyond recognition in recent decades and the law struggles to keep up. In this highly acclaimed and very accessible book Margaret Brazier and Emma Cave provide an incisive survey of the legal situation in areas as diverse as fertility treatment, patient consent, assisted dying, malpractice and medical privacy. The sixth edition of this book has been fully revised and updated to cover the latest cases, from assisted dying to informed consent; legislative reform of the NHS, professional regulation and redress; European regulations on data protection and clinical trials; and legislation and policy reforms on organ donation, assisted conception and mental capacity. Essential reading for healthcare professionals, lecturers, medical and law students, this book is of relevance to all whose perusal of the daily news causes wonder, hope and consternation at the advances and limitations of medicine, patients and the law.
This chapter explains how the establishment of a Royal Commission on Trade
Unions and Employers’ Associations, chaired by Lord Donovan, was a response
by the Labour Government, narrowly elected in October 1964, to the problems
and issues delineated in chapter one. However, it was also a quid pro quo
for passing the 1965 Trade Disputes Act to restore the unions’ legal
position following Rookes v Barnard. Prime Minister Harold Wilson had hoped
that the Royal Commission would put forward radical and far-reaching
proposals for reforming industrial relations and trade unionism, whereupon
the Government could mollify trade union hostility by offering a rather more
modest package of legislative reforms. However, the chapter notes that the
Donovan Report, published in 1968, was strongly influenced by the Oxford
School of industrial relations, and therefore proposed a strengthening of
‘voluntarism’, rather than placing collective bargaining within a clear
legal framework. This was a deep disappointment to Wilson, who resolved,
along with Barbara Castle, that the Labour Government would need to invoke
comprehensive industrial relations legislation which went rather further
than Donovan’s proposals, especially in order to tackle unofficial strikes.
This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.
concluding Part II of this monograph, it would appear that legislativereform, social and political sentiments requiring increased corporate
accountability, and judicially initiated reform, have recently aligned.
and amendments to existing legislation and secondary legislation, and has engaged in institution-building and other relevant work to
align with the EU acquis, and has pledged to do more. These legislativereforms
took place, however, within a discursive framework (per Lukes’ three-dimensional
power) that largely shifted from a direct interest in membership to symbolic politics – merely the appearance of an interest in membership.
While EU and Turkish politicians and bureaucrats debated how to govern
Turkey within a symbolic political discursive framework, they made
This final chapter provides further evidence of the effectiveness of
female agency during these years. Engaging in a wide range of campaigning
activities, voluntary women’s organisations were successful in bringing
about legislativereform and influencing public policy. This presents a
challenge to longstanding assumptions that the 1950s and early 1960s
witnessed a women’s movement overpowered by an ideology of domesticity. Accordingly, this study suggests that by 1964, the MU, CWL, NCW,
WI and TG had proven themselves effective in providing housewives