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A. J. Coates

5 Legitimate authority The criterion of legitimate authority has become the most neglected of all the criteria that have been traditionally employed in the moral assessment of war. Nowhere is this more evident than in the popular assessment of contemporary terrorism. For many the central moral issue raised by terrorism is that of non-­combatant immunity. The peculiar moral vulnerability of terrorism is seen to lie in its tendency to violate this principle of just conduct. As one study of terrorism argues: ‘Perhaps the main obstacle to any agreement that

in The ethics of war
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

4 Claims to legitimate authority and discursive attacks We don’t believe in the authorities anymore. When you say … ‘there, that’s the new administrator, everyone may clap but with a certain mockery …’ Him also, what is he going to do? (Peasant Union Member (no. 151) 2010) We could wonder about the role of that whispered language within the political system of unanimity. It is, to my mind, a way of softening the overwhelming and restrictive official language in order to make it more bearable; it is an antidote. Irony and humour are the weapons of the powerless

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Joanne Yao

accompanying technological innovations in transportation and communication, allowed the state to concentrate and centralize its workings. This centralization created what Andreas Osiander called ‘integrated economic circuits’ ( 2001 : 281) and what Barry Buzan and George Lawson describe as administrative functions that were ‘accumulated and “caged” within national territories’ ( 2015 : 6). In this process, Jordan Branch stresses cartography as a key technology that helped reshape legitimate authority from non-territorial and overlapping forms prior to the nineteenth century

in The ideal river
Abstract only
Second edition
Author: A. J. Coates

Though the just war tradition has an ancient pedigree, like any tradition of thought, it is subject to historical highs and lows. Drawing on examples from the history of warfare from the Crusades to the present day, this book explores the limits and possibilities of the moral regulation of war. It focuses on the tensions which exist between war and morality. The moral ambiguity and mixed record of that tradition is acknowledged and the dangers which an exaggerated view of the justice or moral worth of war poses are underlined. The adoption of a 'dispositional' view of ethical life, in which moral character and moral culture play a decisive part, widens and transforms the ethics of war. Realism resists the application of morality to war. Pacifism harms and benefits the just war tradition in about equal measure. In opposition to the amoral and wholly pragmatic approach of the 'pure' realist, the just war theorist insists on the moral determination of war where that is possible, and on the moral renunciation of war where it is not. Moral realism is what the just war tradition purports to be about. Legitimate authority has become entirely subordinated to the concept of state sovereignty. If moderate forms of consequentialism threaten the principle of noncombatant immunity, more extreme or purer forms clearly undermine it. The strategic and the ethical problems of counterterrorism are compounded by the emergence of a new and more extreme form of terrorism.

Timothy Longman

supposedly legitimate authorities, those with misgivings found it easier to commit crimes and to believe or pretend to believe they had done no wrong. (p. 2) The case studies of Butare, Nyakizu and Musebeya (and other parts of Gikongoro) that occupy the second half of the book explore the dynamics of local involvement. They seek to explain exactly how national, regional and local elites exercised their authority to convince individuals and communities to participate in the killing. The main point is that, left to their own devices, average Rwandans would generally not

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

efforts often had the counter-effect of provoking resistance ( Abramowitz et al. , 2017 ; Faye, 2017 ; Gillespie et al. , 2016 ; Wilkinson and Fairhead, 2017 ). As we will show, cadets sociaux challenged official CVVs and have retained the legitimate authority to carry out community surveillance and community defence. In doing so, they reprised the monitoring and protection role they played during the Liberian and Sierra Leonean conflicts in the 2000s, when the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

individual human life and for that person’s own interests and projects, the appeals of humanitarians become mere arguments, opinions, preferences, not obligations anchored in fundamental and shared moral rules. Those who challenge legitimate authority can now be painted as anti-social elements who fragment society and threaten political stability, who undermine moral probity and who are a danger to the community, which has an overwhelming collective interest in stopping them. And they can be stopped even with the use of lethal violence (Presidents

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
A new faction of the transnational field of statistics
Francisca Grommé, Evelyn Ruppert, and Baki Cakici

with ambiguous outcomes. While the concentration of the generation, accumulation and ownership of big data in the hands of private-sector corporations has been well documented and argued, our interest is in professional struggles over the legitimate authority to generate official knowledge of the state. We refer to this struggle as the politics of method in which the objects of study and the professions that study them are being defined at the same time (Savage 2010). This entwinement of objects and professions means that this struggle is consequential for how

in Ethnography for a data-saturated world
Constructing the Danube
Joanne Yao

. With the 1829 Treaty of Adrianople, the Danube delta came under Russian control, and it was now Russia's responsibility as sovereign to maintain the Danube's mouth for commerce (Geffcken 1883 : 6). Russia's inability or unwillingness to do so shaped perceptions of it as a civilized and legitimate authority. As the British Vice Consul at Galatz Charles Cunningham wrote of Russian efforts at the Danube delta, ‘Notwithstanding the intention of the Imperial government, it is clear that the duties assumed at Sulina have hitherto not been satisfactorily performed’ (FO 78

in The ideal river
Abstract only
Packaging, brands and trademarks
Claire L. Jones

Chapter 2 turns to the next battleground in the commodification process in this transitional period: packaging, branding and trademarking. While it was only from the late 1930s at the earliest that the LRC’s famous brand ‘Durex’ became synonymous with the condom, this chapter draws attention to the importance of packaging, branding and trademarks before ‘Durex’. It draws on two prominent examples of branded contraceptives – W. J. Rendell’s ‘Wife’s Friend’ Soluble Quinine Pessary, registered in 1894, and Lambert’s ‘Pro-Race’ rubber cervical cap, registered in 1922 – and outlines the numerous infringement battles over imitation of these brands in the interwar period. Tensions between manufacturers and surgical stores not only indicated the perceived commercial value of brands and trademarks, but were indicative of firms’ attempts to establish themselves as the legitimate authorities on birth control in a more open market for such goods. Branding and trademarks, both a mixture of traditional and modern designs, were a way to convince consumers of the quality and reliability of products, and evidence from the Rendell company archive suggests a degree of success. Rendell’s customers, in particular, viewed these contraceptives as reliable through the identification of the firm’s branding and trademarks.

in The business of birth control