Changing conceptions of lifelongeducation/learning
his chapter will focus on the development (Wain, 2004, pp. 1–90) of lifelongeducation (LLE)/learning (LLL). This constitutes the key aspect of contemporary European universities’ work being analysed in this book. The chapter will
discuss the development of the concept from its promotion by UNESCO and later
formulations and emphases, most of which reflect OECD and EU agendas. The
implications of the discursive shift from LLE to LLL will be considered, as will the
In this broad sweep, Mayo explores dominant European discourses of higher education, in the contexts of different globalisations and neoliberalism, and examines its extension to a specific region. It explores alternatives in thinking and practice including those at the grassroots, also providing a situationally grounded project of university–community engagement. Signposts for further directions for higher education lifelong learning, with a social justice purpose, are provided.
disputed geragogy as first propounded by Lebel (1978). Focusing exclusively on the
learning of older people, this envisages a search for meaning as a key educational activity. Thus Cusack (1991: 10) has emphasised lifelongeducation as ‘a
process of making meaning from experience, from life experience and from the
learning experiences provided’.
Two experiential learning situations illustrate the fundamental differences
between andragogy and geragogy. The online stream from my textile demonstration at the Swansea ‘Experiment and Experience’ conference mentioned above
Refiguring childhood stages a series of encounters with biosocial power, which is a specific zone of intensity within the more encompassing arena of biopower and biopolitics. Assembled at the intersection of thought and practice, biosocial power attempts to bring envisioned futures into the present, taking hold of life in the form of childhood, thereby bridging being and becoming while also shaping the power relations that encapsulate the social and cultural world(s) of adults and children. Taking up a critical perspective which is attentive to the contingency of childhoods – the ways in which particular childhoods are constituted and configured – the method used in the book is a transversal genealogy that moves between past and present while also crossing a series of discourses and practices framed by children’s rights (the right to play), citizenship, health, disadvantage and entrepreneurship education. The overarching analysis converges on contemporary neoliberal enterprise culture, which is approached as a conjuncture that helps to explain, and also to trouble, the growing emphasis on the agency and rights of children. It is against the backdrop of this problematic that the book makes its case for refiguring childhood. Focusing on the how, where and when of biosocial power, Refiguring childhood will appeal to researchers and students interested in examining the relationship between power and childhood through the lens of social and political theory, sociology, cultural studies, history and geography.
Does European integration contribute to, or even accelerate, the erosion of intra-party democracy? This book is about improving our understanding of political parties as democratic organisations in the context of multi-level governance. It analyses the impact of European Union (EU) membership on power dynamics, focusing on the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party (PS), and the German Social Democratic Party (SPD). The purpose of this book is to investigate who within the three parties determines EU policies and selects EU specialists, such as the candidates for European parliamentary elections and EU spokespersons. The book utilises a principal-agent framework to investigate the delegation of power inside the three parties across multiple levels and faces. It draws on over 65 original interviews with EU experts from the three national parties and the Party of European Socialists (PES) and an e-mail questionnaire. This book reveals that European policy has largely remained in the hands of the party leadership. Its findings suggest that the party grassroots are interested in EU affairs, but that interest rarely translates into influence, as information asymmetry between the grassroots and the party leadership makes it very difficult for local activists to scrutinise elected politicians and to come up with their own policy proposals. As regards the selection of EU specialists, such as candidates for the European parliamentary elections, this book highlights that the parties’ processes are highly political, often informal, and in some cases, undemocratic.
universities and other HE institutions for not being
in tune with industry’s ever-changing needs –never mind the fact that formal
educational institutions, encumbered by administrative setups, and increasingly
bureaucratic ones at that, are the least likely to be flexible enough to adapt to the
constant fluctuations of the economy and the labour market –once a standard
criticism of Human Capital Theory in education (Sultana, 1992, p. 298).
LLL, initially promoted by UNESCO as lifelongeducation (LLE), but subsequently carried forward more forcefully with regard to
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stressed that it should promote lifelongeducation to enable
its citizens to succeed in an increasingly flexible labour market. However,
citizenship was not to become dependent on being in paid work. The traditional aim of decommodification was largely maintained, paid employment
was not elevated to a panacea for poverty and social exclusion, nor was
Third way and Neue Mitte (1995–98)
The SPD suffered general election defeats in 1990 and in 1994, while
changing its party chairmen three times between 1990 and 1995. In
1992, the party endorsed a