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Author: Simon Walker

Simon Walker studied modern history at Magdelen College, Oxford, graduating with first-class honours in 1979. When Walker began researching the retinue of John of Gaunt in 1980, 'bastard feudalism' had been the subject of debate for thirty-five years. A study of John of Gaunt's retinue could be expected to throw important, if not decisive, light on these problems. For not only was his the largest retinue in late medieval England, but for thirty years the duke himself had a dominant role in the domestic, military and diplomatic policy of England. In 1994, Michael Jones and Walker published for the Camden Society an edition of all the surviving private life indentures for peace and war apart from those of John of Gaunt and William, Lord Hastings. Walker's introduction to the volume reviewed the evolution of life indentures, the range of services they embraced, the regulation of obligations for service and reward, and the changing role of such indentures over the period 1278-1476. From these broad investigations into the balance of power between magnates and gentry, Walker returned to examine how, in individual cases, two men from different backgrounds built their careers on noble and royal patronage. Walker then turned to examine the retrospective view of the 1399 revolution in literate culture. He used case studies to build up a picture of collective mentalities among different social grades and vocational worlds, hoping ultimately to construct a new approach to the tensions and strength of the late medieval polity.

The origins of the concept in Enlightenment intellectual culture
Nicholas Hudson

of European nations in their modern, developed state. These views marked a radical departure from the generally negative opinion of pre-literate cultures that prevailed in the Renaissance and the seventeenth century. In Purchas his Pilgrimes (1625), a major source of information about non- European peoples in the early century, Samuel Purchas echoed the conventional view that alphabetical writing marked the main distinction between civilized peopled and ‘barbarians’: ‘amongst Men, some are accounted Ciuill, and more both Sociable and Religious, by the Vse of

in The spoken word
Richard Suggett and Eryn White

literate culture over this long period can bring out significant shifts in the relationship between literacy, language and aspects of identity in Wales. Speech and writing in Wales related dynamically throughout this period, as it did in England. However the relationship between the written and spoken word had an additional complexity in Wales because of the cross-cutting hierarchy of the English and Welsh languages. The changing relationship between the spoken and the written word and between English and Welsh has been considered in three broad periods. Much has been

in The spoken word
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Alun Withey

also explored in detail. Much Welsh historiography concentrates on the conservatism of Welsh religion and its role in preserving traditional, or else folkloric medicine. Here, a different approach is adopted and the ways in which Welsh religion could effect changes in medical approaches are explored. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the pathways through which medical information travelled in Wales, through detailed analyses of both oral and literate cultures in early modern Wales. Here, the study draws attention to the growing importance of medical texts, and highlights an

in Physick and the family
Health, medicine and care in Wales, 1600-1750
Author: Alun Withey

This book provides a complete reappraisal of Welsh medical history in the early modern period. It investigates some of the factors affecting the types and spread of disease in Wales. Studies of disease and the body in popular cultural sources, such as poetry and vernacular verse, contribute to a wider assessment of a 'Welsh' bodily concept. The book explores the importance of geography and regional variation in affecting the sickness experience. It then examines the pathways through which medical information travelled in Wales, through detailed analyses of both oral and literate cultures in early modern Wales. The book also investigates medical material culture within the home in early modern Wales. It further analyses the 'sick role' and the ways in which sufferers both experienced and described their symptoms, foregrounding the growing impact of literacy and letters in sickness self-fashioning. The book looks at the availability of medical care in the early modern community, arguing that sickness served to create a temporary medical family, who provided a comprehensive structure of support from visiting to the provision of physical care. Finally, it argues that Welsh practitioner's desire to adopt English medical nomenclature points to a growing wish to be seen as 'legitimate' practitioners, a view backed up by the increasing numbers of medical licences granted to Welsh physicians.

Medicine, and oral and print culture
Alun Withey

transmission. It not only highlights the individual practices of an early modern disease sufferer, but also draws attention to the many overlapping spheres – social, cultural, verbal, literate, lay and orthodox – which together formed and informed Welsh medical approaches. Medicine and the Welsh oral tradition As Adam Fox has noted, there was constant reciprocity between oral and literate cultures, to the extent that it is questionable whether they should even be considered as being monolithic.8 In his magisterial study of oral and literate culture in early modern England

in Physick and the family
Reinventing history in 2 Henry IV
Alison Thorne

Culture in Seventeenth-Century England (London: Croom Helm, 1985) and Tim Harris (ed.) Popular Culture in England, c. 1500–1800 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1995); and Adam Fox, Oral and Literate Culture in England 1500–1700 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000). 4

in Shakespeare’s histories and counter-histories
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Editor: Gregory Vargo

The first collection of its kind, Chartist Drama makes available four plays written or performed by members of the Chartist movement of the 1840s. Emerging from the lively counter-culture of this protest campaign for democratic rights, these plays challenged cultural as well as political hierarchies by adapting such recognisable genres as melodrama, history plays, and tragedy for performance in radically new settings. A communal, public, and embodied art form, drama was linked for the Chartists with other kinds of political performance: the oratory of the mass platform, festival-like outdoor meetings, and the elaborate street theatre of protest marches. Plays that Chartists wrote or staged advanced new interpretations of British history and criticised aspects of the contemporary world. And Chartist drama intervened in fierce strategic arguments within the movement. Most notably, poet-activist John Watkins’s John Frost, which dramatises the gripping events of the Newport rising of 1839, in which twenty-two Chartists lost their lives, defends the rebellion and the Chartist recourse to violence as a means for the movement to achieve its aims. The volume’s appendices document over one hundred Chartist dramatic performances, staged by activists in local Chartist associations or at professional benefits at some of London’s largest working-class theatres. Gregory Vargo’s introduction and notes elucidate the previously unexplored world of Chartist dramatic culture, a context that promises to reshape what we know about early Victorian popular politics and theatre.

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Reading early modern women and the poem
Patricia Pender and Rosalind Smith

voice. The availability of poetry that ventriloquised the voice of the early modern woman writer to historical women poets becomes clearer as we understand more of the links between oral and literate cultures in the period, together with the roles performance and collaboration played in poetic cultures.7 As Matt Cohen suggests, early modern textual transmission was ‘choral’, the ‘aggregate work’ of writers, scribes, typesetters, editors, booksellers, readers and performers.8 A single text did not exist in a unique iteration, but was remade in its subsequent

in Early modern women and the poem
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Louise Hill Curth

, collecting and the pamphlet culture of seventeenth century England’ in J. Andersen and E. Sauer (eds) Books and Readers in Early Modern England: Material Studies (Philadelphia, 2002), pp. 201–216; T. Watt, Cheap Print and Popular Piety 1550–1640 (Cambridge, UK, 1996); and A. Halasz, The Marketplace of Print: Pamphlets and the Public Sphere in Early Modern England (Cambridge, UK, 1997). 234 Conclusion 4 B. Capp, Astrology and the Popular Press: English Almanacs 1500–1800 (London, 1979). 5 A. Fox, Oral and Literate Culture in England 1500–1700 (Oxford, 2000), p. 413. 6 C

in English almanacs, astrology and popular medicine: 1550–1700