Most Cypriots and British today do not know that Cypriots even served in the Great War. This book contributes to the growing literature on the role of the British non-settler empire in the Great War by exploring the service of the Cypriot Mule Corps on the Salonica Front, and after the war in Constantinople. This book speaks to a number of interlocking historiographies, contributing to various debates especially around enlistment/volunteerism, imperial loyalty and veterans' issues. At the most basic level, it reconstructs the story of Cypriot Mule Corps' contribution, of transporting wounded men and supplies to the front, across steep mountains, with dangerous ravines and in extreme climates. The book argues that Cypriot mules and mule drivers played a pivotal role in British logistics in Salonica and Constantinople, especially the former. It explores the impact of the war on Cypriot socio-economic conditions, particularly of so many men serving abroad on the local economy and society. The issues that arose for the British in relation to the contracts they offered the Cypriots, contracts offered to the muleteers, and problems of implementing the promise of an allotment scheme are also discussed. Behavioural problems one finds with military corps, such as desertion and crime, were not prevalent in the Cypriot Mule Corps. The book also explores the impact of death and incapacity on veterans and dependants, looking at issues that veterans faced after returning and resettling into Cypriot life.
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace
instrumentalise humanitarians’ presence. This may occur, for example, where armed actors benefit from humanitarian services, the money that humanitarian organisations inject into localeconomies or an enhanced image and legitimacy garnered through facilitating humanitarian access ( Magone et al. , 2012 ; Neuman and Weissman, 2016 ). A sector-wide embrace of ‘synthesis’ would push further in this direction, leading to a new phase in the discourse on the interrelationship between principles, compromise and security management.
While violence against
patient engaged in gardening (of a total of
four male patients).
Iwakura Mental Hospital: several male patients engaged in farming and chicken
raising (of a total of 274 male and 124 female patients).
Family host care and the localeconomy
Both the inns and Iwakura Mental Hospital benefitted not only from the fees
they charged for accommodation, but local produce such as rice, vegetables
and firewood became part of patients’ boarding necessities rather than needing to be carried for sale to Kyoto city. Villagers were able to get employment
as attendants, washerwomen
war on Cypriot socio-economic conditions, particularly
of so many men serving abroad on the localeconomy and society. The next
chapter delves into the formation of the Mule Corps. It explores
questions such as why and how it was formed, why Cypriot mules and men
were selected, and its administration and organisation. This leads into
a discussion in Chapter 4 on why and
how so many mules were
question of its utility is more difficult to determine.
A study that examines the processes by which tribunalists perceived and
confronted the many issues arising during the course of their sittings must,
in part, be judgemental. But was ‘success’ predicated upon the efficient
processing of fit young men from civilian life to the Colours, the maintenance of localeconomies in the face of periodic large-scale manpower
depletion, the exercise of a humane perspective in inhuman circumstances,
or a balance which sought to deliver a measure of each?
We might begin to address
This study concerns the history of Gibraltar following its military conquest in 1704, after which sovereignty of the territory was transferred from Spain to Britain and it became a British fortress and colony. It focuses on the civilian population and shows how a substantial multi-ethnic Roman Catholic and Jewish population, derived mainly from the littorals and islands of the Mediterranean, became settled in British Gibraltar, much of it in defiance of British efforts to control entry and restrict residence. To explain why that population arrived and took root, the book also analyses the changing fortunes of the local economy over 300 years, the occupational opportunities presented and the variable living standards which resulted. Although for most of the period the British authorities primarily regarded Gibraltar as a fortress and governed it autocratically, they also began to incorporate civilians into administration, until it eventually, though still a British Overseas Territory, became internally a self-governing civilian democracy. The principal intention of the study is to show how the demographic, economic, administrative and political history of Gibraltar accounts for the construction, eventually and problematically, of a distinctive ‘Gibraltarian’ identity. With Gibraltar's political future still today contested, this is a matter of considerable political importance.
This chapter explores economic and social history in the context of witchcraft in the Pendle area using the ‘village tensions’ approach, the most influential modern explanation of witchcraft. This model focuses upon the grassroots generation of witchcraft accusations rather than on the prosecution process. It proposes that the profound social and economic pressures of the later sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries tended to divide the members of parish communities against each other, and these in turn generated threats and accusations of witchcraft. Using this model, an account of the pressures on Pendle's upland ‘cattle and cloth economy’ is combined with a detailed analysis of the individual accusations in the 1612 trial. A high proportion of the witchcraft cases in Pendle involved disputes over money and property or misfortunes involving milk and cattle, arguing that social and economic pressures influenced but did not determine the events of 1612. Magical powers, offered or threatened, were themselves part of the local economy, what might be called a black economy of witchcraft.
This chapter explores representations of cross-border mobilities in the Ukrainian-Romanian borderlands. In 2007-2009, cross-border trading and shopping had established themselves as an important part of the local economy and integral to daily life in local communities. Nestled within the thousands of border crossings that were made every day were feelings of shame on the part of those living on the Ukrainian side of the border. This shame was relational across two levels: firstly, as a personal shame in the practices involved in cross-border small trading – the payments of bribes, the flirtation with Romanian customs officials and interactions with money-changers; secondly, a more general, collective sense of shame that such practices should be taking place across a border, which had previously sheltered Soviet citizens from the humiliations of living under late socialism in Ceausescu’s Romania. The chapter elucidates how for the villagers involved the intersection of these levels of shame emerged in dominant narratives of the trade, which not only challenged elite level nation-building in Ukraine, but also made use of existing narrative forms, primarily anecdotes and jokes. What emerges is a much more complex theoretical understanding of the trans-temporality of shame at the border.
This chapter examines women’s involvement in commercial litigation through analysis of debt pleas from the three towns of Nottingham, Chester and Winchester. It uses debt pleas to offer a new insight into women’s work and trading relationships and the ways in which this brought them into contact with the law, as both plaintiffs and defendants, at different stages of their lives, and at all levels within the local economy. Debt pleas were one of the key ways in which women engaged in litigation within medieval towns, making their role within these pleas key to understanding women’s experiences of the law more broadly. The chapter analyses women’s involvement in debt pleas through both quantitative and qualitative analysis, tracing changes over time in levels of women’s commercial litigation as well as examining the nature of these cases as illustrated through numerous examples. It also deals in detail with the status of married women in these pleas, contrasting the extent to which they were able to take legal action alongside their husbands in the courts of different towns, and how this developed or changed over time.
magical powers, offered or threatened, were themselves part of the localeconomy – what we might call a black economy of witchcraft.
More recently, historians have looked more to religion and ideas for explanations of witch trials. Long ago, as Michael Mullett reminds us, Hugh Trevor-Roper in an influential essay suggested that witchcraft trials were concentrated in areas where there were clashes between strong Roman Catholicism and vigorous reforming Protestantism, and singled out Lancashire as an example. The county was certainly notable at