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Education in the British Empire, 1830–1910
Author: Felicity Jensz

Nineteenth-century evangelical Protestant missionary groups commonly assumed that they were the most apt providers of education to non-Europeans in British colonies. Christian schooling was deemed imperative for modernising societies to withstand secularising forces. This significant study examines this assumption by drawing on key moments in the development of missionary education from the 1830s to the beginning of the twentieth century. The book is the first to survey the changing ideologies behind establishing mission schools across the spectrum of the British Empire. It examines the Negro Education Grant in the West Indies, the Aborigines Select Committee (British Settlements), missionary conferences in 1860 and 1910 as well as drawing on local voices and contexts from Southern Africa, British India and Sri Lanka to demonstrate the changing expectations for, engagement with and ideologies circulating around mission schools resulting from government policies and local responses. By the turn of the twentieth century, many colonial governments had encroached upon missionary schooling to such an extent that the symbiosis that had allowed missionary groups autonomy at the beginning of the century had morphed into an entanglement that secularised mission schools. The spread of ‘Western modernity’ through mission schools in British colonies affected local cultures and societies. It also threatened Christian religious moral authority, leading missionary societies by the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 to question the ambivalent legacy of missionary schooling, and to fear for the morality and religious sensibilities of their pupils, and indeed for morality within Britain and the Empire.

Simon Walker

applicable to the realities of the situation in Lancashire. It is not to an excess of lordship that the disorders of the palatinate should be ascribed but to an older and less tractable problem, the endemic failure of medieval rulers to control their local agents. Far from encouraging the depredations of his officials, John of Gaunt suffered from them both financially, in terms of lost revenue, and politically, as the discontents created by the corruption of officialdom encouraged some of the Lancashire gentry to look outside the county for the lordship that would right

in Political culture in later medieval England
Ida Milne

 85 4 ‘Managing’ the crisis How medical care was organised and managed in early twentieth-​ century Ireland? How did patients access the system? What role did the Government play in the pandemic, through its local agents bearing responsibility for overseeing public health and sanitation, the Local Government Board for Ireland? This chapter argues that the influenza epidemic, by placing pressure on the medical system and its institutions, highlighted pre-​existing tensions between the LGB and the BOGs as local administrators of the Poor Law dispensary system

in Stacking the coffins
Local societies in early medieval Europe

This is an exploration of social cohesion in rural settlements in western Europe in the period 700–1050 CE, and of the extent to which settlements, or districts, constituted units of social organisation. It focuses on the interactions, interconnections and networks of people who lived side by side – neighbours. Drawing evidence from most of the current western European countries, the book plots and interrogates the very different practices of this wide range of regions in a systematically comparative framework, offering a new approach to well-known problems of the early Middle Ages by bringing together expertise from different national traditions. It examines how people in the localities of the early medieval West worked together in pursuit of shared goals beyond the level of the household, and how (and whether) they formed their own groups through that collective action. It considers the variety of local responses to the supra-local agents of landlords and rulers and the impact, such as it was, of those agents on the small-scale residential group. It also assesses the impact on local societies of the values, instructions and demands of the wider literate world of Christianity, as delivered by local priests.

Cheshire on the eve of civil war
Authors: Richard Cust and Peter Lake

This book aims to revisit the county study as a way into understanding the dynamics of the English civil war during the 1640s. It explores gentry culture and the extent to which early Stuart Cheshire could be said to be a ‘county community’. It investigates the responses of the county’s governing elite and puritan religious establishment to highly polarising interventions by the central government and Laudian ecclesiastical authorities during Charles I’s Personal Rule. The second half of the book provides a rich and detailed analysis of the petitioning movements and side-taking in Cheshire during 1641-42. This important contribution to understanding the local origins and outbreak of civil war in England will be of interest to all students and scholars studying the English Revolution.

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

The Schutztruppen and their leaders in East and South-West Africa, 1888–1918
Kirsten Zirkel

would limit the Reich’s financial involvement. Events in the ‘protected areas’, however, forced him to drop private self-government. The concessionary companies lacked sufficient financial resources and military means to support their far-reaching claims; in addition, the dismal behaviour of their local agents towards powerful indigenous groups soon led to the collapse of the system of company rule at

in Guardians of empire
Abstract only
Mark Bailey

personally, for most had too many manors and other duties to be directly involved in manorial management themselves. Consequently, the day-to-day running of individual manors on most estates was delegated to local officials, and the manorial account was the means by which their activities were supervised by the landlord. 3 A directly managed manor normally fell under the overall supervision of a single local agent, who effectively

in The English manor c.1200–c.1500
Ruth Holliday, Meredith Jones, and David Bell

­potential 162 Beautyscapes: mapping cosmetic surgery tourism patients. Such activities were vital in selling cosmetic surgery in unfamiliar destinations like Tunisia, about which patients had little geopolitical knowledge. Tunisia was described to patients by the agent as ‘in the Mediterranean’. Jenny recounted the positive experience of being picked up from the airport and driven to the hospital by a local agent, Mariem, and settled in her room by Tunisian nurse Karim: When I got to Tunisia itself there was Karim who was the English-speaking Tunisian/Frenchman who

in Beautyscapes
Central African medicines and poisons and knowledge-making in the empire, c.1859–c.1940
Markku Hokkanen

thwarted efforts to learn about the poisons. In his view, African detectives from other regions (such as Southern Rhodesia) would be of little or no help since they would lack proficiency in local languages. The Chief Commissioner admitted that although the Nyasaland police force was trying to recruit local agents, this had not yet yielded results. Medical Officer Shelley's own attempts to analyse

in Medicine, mobility and the empire