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Russ Hunter

European horror films have often been characterised by a tendency towards co-production arrangements. Recent developments within regional European funding bodies and initiatives have led to a proliferation of films that combine traditional co-production agreements with the use of both regional and intra-regional funding sources. This article examines the extent to which the financial structuring of Creep(Christopher Smith, 2004), Salvage (Lawrence Gough), and Trollhunter (André Øvredal, 2010) informed the trajectory of their production dynamics, impacting upon their final form. Sometimes, such European horror films are part of complex co-production deals with multiple partners or are derived from one-off funding project. But they can also utilise funding schemes that are distinctly local.

Film Studies
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Ruth Barton

The intention behind writing this book was to argue for the place of the national within Irish filmmaking. In times past, films were ascribed a national identity through funding. A British-funded film, The Crying Game for instance, was British. The less local funding that went into an Irish film, the less Irish it was. The rise of co-production funding complicated this model and the initial response to this shift was to anticipate that its consequence would be the dilution, even eradication, of the local in the face of the global. I hope to

in Irish cinema in the twenty-first century
Thomas M. Hanna

, public transportation, and public services. For finance, there would be a mix of public ownership forms at various levels, including global (international development and lending), national (monetary policy), and local (funding economic development). Utility industries (such as electricity, water, and gas), public transportation, and public services like health and education, would all be comprised of a mix of national state owned enterprises and local/regional public enterprises.31 Importantly, Cumbers also institutes a scale requirement for private firms in sectors

in Our common wealth
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Private greed, political negligence and housing policy after Grenfell

As the tragedy of the Grenfell Tower fire of 14 June 2017 has slowly revealed a shadowy background of outsourcing and deregulation, and a council turning a blind eye to health and safety concerns, many questions need answers. Stuart Hodkinson has those answers. Safe as Houses weaves together Stuart’s research over the last decade with residents’ groups in council regeneration projects across London to provide the first comprehensive account of how Grenfell happened and how it could easily have happened in multiple locations across the country. It draws on examples of unsafe housing either refurbished or built by private companies under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) to show both the terrible human consequences of outsourcing and deregulation and how the PFI has enabled developers, banks and investors to profiteer from highly lucrative, taxpayer-funded contracts. The book also provides shocking testimonies of how councils and other public bodies have continuously sided with their private partners, doing everything in their power to ignore, deflect and even silence those who speak out. The book concludes that the only way to end the era of unsafe regeneration and housing provision is to end the disastrous regime of self-regulation. This means strengthening safety laws, creating new enforcement agencies independent of government and industry, and replacing PFI and similar models of outsourcing with a new model of public housing that treats the provision of shelter as ‘a social service’ democratically accountable to its residents.

Alan Rosenthal

. In this situation the main UK broadcasters like Channel 4, BSkyB, and the BBC seemed our last hope. While I was gearing up and rewriting the proposals for England my UK partner, John Marshall, was investigating various local funding and investment bodies such as the BFI, Creative England, Film East, and Film London, etc. All gave John a negative reply, usually claiming they only supported feature films not TV broadcasts. This gave John a new opera off-shoot idea, which we discussed at some length over Skype and e-mail. Maybe, John said, we could do a one off, hour

in The documentary diaries
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Derek Birrell

and health and education bodies. functions of the Museums Council and the policy role of the Rural Development Council. The opportunity was also not really taken of strengthening local government with only two quangos proposed for a transfer of their total functions, the Fishery Harbour Authority and the Local Government Staff Commission. Three quangos, the Arts Council, Tourist Board and the Sports Council would lose only their local funding powers to local government. These proposals can be assessed as leading overall to a reduction in the number of quangos

in Direct rule and the governance of Northern Ireland
Open Access (free)
Looking beyond the state
Anna Greenwood

that the local Zanzibari Colonial Medical Service could not provide (it had no female MO), but the case study shows that the British were quick to distance themselves from the ZMA – even actively disparaging it – when their proposition to run it as an adjunct part of the colonial medical department was rejected by the local funders. This seems to be an example of the British rejecting cooperation when

in Beyond the state
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Alcohol and the Reformation
James Nicholls

when drinks were actually being sold, and the market for beer was steadily increasing as water sources became increasingly less and less reliable thanks to population expansion and the rise of polluting industries such as tanning. In the late middle ages, ale also contributed to a rudimentary welfare system. Communal ‘ales’ – local fund-raising events based around a specially-brewed consignment of ale – were one of the key sources of revenue for both parish churches and secular good causes.3 ‘Bride-ales’ for newlyweds, ‘bid-ales’ for needy individuals, and the

in The politics of alcohol
Ben Tonra

world but it can be usefully contrasted with unofficial relationships – primarily those developed as a result of missionary activity. As noted above, the tradition of support for priests and members of religious orders ‘on the missions’ in the developing world was a strong one. This developed into popular consciousness through regular church collections, subscriptions to missionary publications and the tradition of returned missionaries engaging in local fund-raising and the pursuit of new vocations. This firmly established a ‘charitable imperative’ with respect to

in Global citizen and European Republic
J. A. Chandler

towards increased dependence on central sources of revenue rather than local funding. The consequence of such changes was a dramatic acceleration in the expenditure of local authorities after 1918, alongside a flattening of the revenue that they could raise from their own resources. Expenditure in Britain by local authorities rose from £147 million in 1919 to £416 million by 1939,55 even though there was a decline in the cost of living, due to the Depression, which will have more than compensated for population increase.56 The increase in spending on the services

in Explaining local government