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Understanding Britain’s extreme right
Author: Paul Jackson

"Pride in Prejudice offers a concise introduction to the varied extreme right groups active in Britain. It looks to the past, in order to explore the roots of this complex movement, while focusing on the numerous groups and activists that make up Britain’s contemporary extreme right. This timely analysis examines the extreme right movement in terms of ideology and appeal, organisational styles, online and offline activism, approaches to leadership, types of supporters and gendered dynamics. Jackson also evaluates successes and failures in policy responses to the extreme right, and identifies the on-going risks posed by lone-actor terrorism.

Showcasing the latest research, Pride in Prejudice argues that Britain has never been immune from the extreme right, and demonstrates the movement has a long history in the country. It is made up of a wide variety of organisations, helping give this marginalised culture a diverse appeal and many are attracted for emotive as well as more rational reasons. While risks posed by the extreme right are manageable, Jackson concludes that this is only possible if we make ourselves aware of the ways the movement operates, and that by doing so we can also make multicultural liberal democracy more robust.

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Paul Jackson

culture and do not tend to meet with others in the movement. These are distinct from ‘lone actors’ who have a two-way relationship with group or networks but still develop violent actions by themselves. Finally, Pantucci highlighted that sometimes violent activists spontaneously come together in small groups, that form when a small number of likeminded figures decide to carry out violence collectively

in Pride in prejudice
A ‘new’ and ‘evolving’ threat to the European Union
Christopher Baker-Beall

also been continuously linked to the threat of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), as well as thought to be predominantly religious in nature and to occur through processes of ‘radicalisation’. Since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, in the post-Breivik period, the ‘new’ and ‘evolving’ threat of terrorism has been linked to the emergence of ‘lone actor’ terrorists and is now focused predominantly on the threat posed by so-called ‘returning foreign fighters’. I contend that this strand of the discourse can be understood as a clear representation of the process

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
A genealogy
Christopher Baker-Beall

terrorism as connected to violent religious extremism discourse strand); 4. counter-terrorism as requiring measures that respect ‘human rights’ (linked to threat of terrorism as requiring a coordinated EU response discourse strand). First, a new type of terrorist threat, the ‘lone wolf’ or ‘lone actor’ who could potentially strike anywhere and at any time, was introduced. Second, whilst the EU continued to define terrorism as a ‘criminal act’, the overarching discourse of a ‘fight against terrorism’ began to merge with the ‘fight against organised crime’, treating each

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Globalisation, securitisation and control
Christopher Baker-Beall

in place so that borders are not crossed by people or goods which pose a risk to the Union’.44 Again, the ‘global reach’ of the threat of terrorism and the ‘devastating consequences’ of acts of terrorism were invoked to legitimise the response. Interestingly, since 2012 the perceived ‘evolution’ of the terrorist threat has meant that this discourse of surveillance and control has taken on more significance. For example, the EU CTC discussion paper, Preventing Lone Actor Terrorism: Food for Thought, noted that ‘lone actor’ terrorists had travelled abroad, therefore

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Preventing ‘radicalisation’, ‘violent extremism’ and ‘terrorism’
Christopher Baker-Beall

spoke of addressing radicalisation from a broader perspective, Constructing the ‘Muslim’ other 151 arguing that the central objective of counter-radicalisation policy should be to ‘empower’ communities to respond to the threat. In the post-Breivik period, ‘radicalisation’ has also been linked to the threat from ‘lone actor’ terrorism and the threat from ‘foreign fighters and returnees’.44 In 2012, the EU CTC proposed that the focus of counter-radicalisation would have to be expanded out to consider not just those individuals who form part of a network but also

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Ontological, epistemological and normative issues
Sondre Lindahl

violence, but perpetrated by self-aware actors who comprehend the potential consequences of employing terrorism as a strategic choice. On the other hand, it will exclude acts of so-called lone-actor terrorism. This is a key conceptual move and it is necessary to sharpen and refine terrorism in this ideal-typical construction. The Breivik attacks in 2011 are commonly understood as terrorism, although it is not obvious what one would gain from labelling the Breivik attacks as terrorism compared with other possible categories, such as mass shootings. The ideal type proposed

in Encountering extremism
Abstract only
Paul Jackson

distastefully stood in the high-profile Batley and Spen by-election as the National Front candidate, following the murder of Jo Cox by a neo-Nazi inspired lone actor terrorist, and remained active in the National Front until his death in December 2020. A month before he died, Edmonds represented the NF alone at the party’s annual event at the Cenotaph. There is a long list of stalwart figures such as Webster

in Pride in prejudice
The executive drama
Ben Tonra

Affairs began to take centre stage in the foreign policy drama but very often as lone actors with only a limited profile in the mainstream of Irish political life. In 1948, Seán MacBride had an active interest in the shape of Ireland’s postwar economic development. As the leader of an important coalition party he was thus in a position to insist that he take on the management of Ireland’s participation in the Marshall Plan’s European Recovery Programme (Whelan 2000). He also led the debate over Irish membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (McCabe 1991) and

in Global citizen and European Republic
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The ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse and the EU’s emerging role as a holistic security actor
Christopher Baker-Beall

or an individual, such as a ‘lone actor’ or a ‘returning foreign fighter’, who seeks to inflict ‘massive casualties’ against the EU and its member states. Within the discourse the threat of the ‘terrorist’ other was always constructed as a particularly acute or extreme threat to the EU. Moreover, the ‘terrorist’ other was presented as more than just a material threat to the EU but also as a threat to the values and ideals upon which the EU is itself founded. The ‘terrorist’ other, then, as a direct threat to the identity of the EU. Second, I drew attention to the

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism