In the previous chapter, market developments leading up to LIBOR
being established as a formal benchmark were set out. Once that was
achieved in 1986 and refined in 1998, LIBOR became the most widely
used benchmark in the world with its 150 specific rates every weekday,
15 for each of the currencies listed below, of which the listings in the
four leading currencies – US dollar, the euro, the British pound and the
Swiss franc – were most frequently used. Among the most important
derivatives depending on LIBOR were interest rate
Music and manipulation
Adorno’s theory of contemporary society begins with the claim of a
system integration which has become total; thus he can regard the
entire media of the culture industry only as a means of domination and
must rate popular forms of art as phenomena of psychical regression.
(Honneth, 1995: 81)
The idea that people may be subject to manipulation by music is a
familiar one, yet efforts to develop it sociologically soon run into
difficulties. For one thing, the ‘manipulation’ in question
Behind every question in purely
formal appearance stand serious and significant problems of
human life, which cast their influence throughout the medium
of the artistic configuration through which one finds or
loses Man. We must resist manipulation, whether it is
Critical approaches to Gothic origins usually bear on theme and ideology rather than on textuality. This article argues both that by the side of thematic issues we must carefully examine the forms of Gothic and that, beyond the literary and philosophical, the folk sources of Gothic remain to be acknowledged. Making use of tools familiar to mythographer and folklorist, textual analysis of a passage from the 1831 edition of Mary Shelley‘s Frankenstein reveals this novel is built on the traditional narrative structure of the heroic quest; while Victor‘s tragic destiny is shown to result from a deliberate manipulation of traditional patterns.
This paper provides a critical analysis of post-humanitarianism with reference to adaptive
design. At a time when precarity has become a global phenomenon, the design principle has
sidelined the need for, or even the possibility of, political change. Rather than working to
eliminate precarity, post-humanitarianism is implicated in its reproduction and governance.
Central here is a historic change in how the human condition is understood. The rational
Homo economicus of modernism has been replaced by progressive
neoliberalism’s cognitively challenged and necessarily ignorant Homo
inscius. Solidarity with the vulnerable has given way to conditional empathy. Rather
than structural outcomes to be protected against, not only are humanitarian crises now seen as
unavoidable, they have become positively developmental. Post-humanitarianism no longer provides
material assistance – its aim is to change the behaviour of the precariat in order to
optimise its social reproduction. Together with the construction of logistical mega-corridors,
this process is part of late-capitalism’s incorporation of the vast informal economies
of the global South. Building on progressive neoliberalism’s antipathy towards formal
structures and professional standards, through a combination of behavioural economics,
cognitive manipulation and smart technology, post-humanitarianism is actively involved in the
elimination of the very power to resist.
; and calling out the manipulation of humanitarian action ( Redfield, 2006 ). It is also a value
signifier, capturing notions of humanity and solidarity, fired by a freewheeling
spirit that cuts across borders and is unrestrained by the trappings of state power.
It has also been conceptualised as a site where science meets morality, reconciling
individual narrative testimony of suffering with objective epidemiological data
( Redfield, 2006 ).
Témoignage as such is
phenomena, from ISIS to the Tea Party to the Hindu nationalist movement associated with the
Bharatiya Janata Party ( Mishra, 2017 ). And latterly,
with considerable contribution from contemporary technologies of mass communication and voter
manipulation, it has been institutionalised through the ballot box.
The election (or near-election) of demagogic, right-wing nationalists in Europe in recent
years seems indicative of a growing preference for illiberal democracy in the cultural home of
liberalism. In opposition to liberal
principle of conspiracy forms the substance of this thought.
While the deliberate use of disinformation is mostly associated with
authoritarian regimes, its use is also growing in ostensible democracies. Bradshaw and Howard (2019) found signs
of ‘computational propaganda’ and the manipulation of public
opinion and social media in over 70 countries in 2019, mostly prominent in
China, especially in its state response to
era of traditional, chemical photography, but it has become more difficult in the
era of digital photography, in which editing and manipulation of photos is widespread, cheap and
easy ( Taylor, 2000: 132 ). In fact, it is strained to
breaking point now photographs are frequently disembodied from their producer and sent into the
world without any detail of their provenance.
Alarmingly, the technology that enables multimedia deception improves every day. Engineers and
programmers have created software that can mimic voice exactly; and they are
‘cards’ and give everyone better access to food and other assistance.
They are, then, a tool for protecting the most vulnerable ( UNHCR, n.d.a ). Wristbands are considered to be a
comparatively low-tech, low-cost, low-trauma method of fixing. 6 However, as can be gauged from UNHCR documents,
wristbands indicate an attitude of suspicion, where the main concern is to avoid
manipulation: ‘In the wristband method of fixing, a single
“tamper-proof” plastic bracelet is