This is a companion to Pastoral poetry of the English Renaissance: an anthology (2016), supporting the earlier volume with a range of critical and textual material. The book-length Introduction traces the course of pastoral from antiquity to the present day. The historical account is woven into a thematic map of the richly varied pastoral mode. Pastoral is linked to its social context, in terms of not only direct allusion but its deeper origins and affinities. English Renaissance pastoral is set in this total perspective. Besides the formal eclogue, the study covers many genres: lyric, epode, georgic, country-house poem, ballad, romantic epic, drama, prose romance. Major practitioners like Theocritus, Virgil, Sidney, Spenser, Drayton and Milton are individually discussed. The Introduction also charts the many means by which pastoral texts circulated in that age, with implications for the history and reception of all Early Modern poetry. All poems in the Anthology were edited from the original manuscripts and early printed texts. The Textual Notes in the present volume comprehensively document the sources and variant readings. There are also notes on the poets, and analytical indices of themes, genres, and various categories of proper names.
This collection of essays is set up to explore the dynamics of local/national political culture in seventeenth-century Britain, with particular reference to political communication. It examines the degree to which connections were forged between politics in London, Whitehall and Westminster, and politics in the localities, and the patterns and processes that can be recovered. The fundamental goal is to foster a dialogue between two prominent strands within recent historiography, and between the work of social and political historians of the early modern period. Chapters by leading historians of Stuart Britain examine how the state worked to communicate with its people and how local communities, often far from the metropole, opened their own lines of communication with the centre. The volume then is not meant to be an exhaustive study of all forms of political communication but it nevertheless highlights a variety of ways this agenda can be addressed. At present there is ongoing work on subscriptional culture across the nation from petitioning to Protestation, loyal addresses, lobbying and litigation to name but a few. It is hoped that this volume will provide a reminder of the gains to be made by placing political communication at the heart of both social and political history and to provide an impetus for further scholarship.
The fall of the Earl of Essex and manuscript circulation
strategy but they also reduced his immediate ability to shape policy and
affect the decision-making process. Bouts of illness, periods of
disfavour, and the sudden fits of pique to which he was sometimes prone
further limited the earl’s attendance at court. Absence from court
increasingly shaped the textual output of Essex and his followers. It
also informed the use of manuscriptcirculation in cultivating a textual
This collection examines the transformations of early modern European satire from the seventeenth through the early nineteenth centuries. Drawing together literary scholars and art historians, the book maps the changes that satire underwent in becoming a less genre-driven and increasingly visual medium. The collection traces the increasing dependence of satire on a proliferation of formats, including visual and textual media and various combinations of them, but also manuscript circulation as well as the use of ‘non-satirical’ forms for satirical purposes. In doing so, while discussing canonical satire in both its textual and visual incarnations, the contributors also move extensively into less charted territory, with material on satire that previous criticism has ignored or relegated to the margins. Satire was a particularly important phenomenon in England in the period and, while acknowledging this, the collection also contains material on France, Italy and Spain. In short, in its wide sweep across time and formats, the book discusses the role satire had as a transgressor of medial and political borders.
This afterword reviews and draws on the findings and arguments of the essays in the collection to emphasise the role of the familial in shaping early modern devotional practice, interiors and interiorities, not only (and obviously) in homes but in worshiping communities and societies, whatever their specific religious orientation, in the various contexts of personal record, scribal copying, manuscript circulation and printing that nurtured the spiritual life, in the rituals, homilies and literature that marked the stages from birth to death, even in the prisons that too often were the consequence of religious commitment. It adduces the non-partisan regard for George Herbert to conclude that the lived experience of the family of the children of God united believers across the socio-economic, political and religious boundaries that otherwise divided and segregated early modern life.
This chapter examines Andrew Marvell’s transition from Republic to restored monarchy through his approach to manuscript circulation and print culture during this period. Mapping his output against Harold Love’s gradient of publication (where ‘strong’ implies a published text, and ‘weak’ implies anything less than private) presents a poet who took great care to limit the disclosure of his works. But Marvell’s ‘The Character of Holland’ presents a distinctive problem. Assumed to have been written in 1653 as part of a bid for preferment during the first Anglo-Dutch War, it may have remained completely private until an abridged version appeared anonymously in print in 1665. This chapter questions whether Marvell’s oft-disputed involvement with the abridged edition marks a carefully calculated return to print in a move of strategic opportunism.
Luisa de Carvajal’s story of extraordinary piety and her extraordinary mission to England during James I’s reign is well known. Sources are relatively plentiful, and, like the woman herself, remarkable. Perhaps most precious are her own life writings, which survive in several drafts, and an equally interesting formal ‘Life’ written by her English Jesuit confessor. These texts have most often been used to understand aspects of Luisa’s interior life – to flood light on her personal feelings and thoughts. Not enough has been done to understand these texts as important interventions into important political landscapes both in England and on the Continent. This chapter argues that her autobiographical sketches were not private musings but efforts to construct a version of her life that would be ‘useful’ within various polemical contexts in which her actions and example mattered. I argue they were part of a broader scheme to stabilize her sometimes erratic ‘performances’ of sanctity in and around London for audiences in England and Spain. She and her confessors wanted to take control of her narrative and underline the significance of her activities using techniques of manuscript circulation and strategic print campaigns. In doing so, they wanted to define her efforts and render them exemplary with hopes that they would become normative. To do this, she and her confessors tried to create a coherent ‘public’ which had remained elusive given her controversial eccentricities. Drawing inspiration from recent work on English Catholicism, this chapter shows that life-writings associated with Luisa were deeply engaged in contemporary politics and spoke specifically to the question of the role women should play on the English (and Spanish) religio-political scene.
collector from a variety of authors, and those of a
significant number of epigrams that were prepared by the author. In turn,
these surviving author-initiated collections also fall into two main groups:
those offered by the author to friends or acquaintances in a limited form of
manuscriptcirculation, and those that were rougher collections developed
by the poet as he moved toward publication.
The vast majority of surviving Elizabethan and early Stuart epigrams
are found in manuscript miscellanies that preserve a variety of different
fictional name and deride an
individual’s faults. Although epigrams are theoretically vehicles of both
praise and blame, the latter dominates, both in terms of the number of
poems and in their popularity in manuscriptcirculation. Social behaviour
and interaction, the superficial, physical and tawdry qualities of individuals, are at the heart of the genre; an epigram book of the period is rather
a gallery of rogues, populated by greedy churchmen, jealous husbands,
frivolous wives, cowardly soldiers, dishonest merchants and prostitutes.
The fleshly shortcomings of greed
hopes that to do so ‘will not prove treason’. 4 In these tumultuous
years many elegies were written about men who had been killed by their
own countrymen rather than by illness, a continental enemy, inept
physicians, or Fate. The greater freedom of the printing press through
much of the 1640s also encouraged outspoken elegies that in previous
decades would have been constrained to manuscript