A history of cinema exhibition in Britain since 1896
Author: Stuart Hanson

The exhibition of films has developed from a lowly fairground attraction in the 1890s to the multi-million pound industry of today. This book charts the development of cinema exhibition and cinema-going in Britain from the first public film screening in February 1896 through to the opening of 30-screen 'megaplexes'. It recounts the beginnings of cinema and in particular its rapid development, by the eve of the Great War, as the pre-eminent mass entertainment. The book considers developments of cinema as an independent entertainment, the positioning of cinemas within the burgeoning metropolitan spaces, the associated search for artistic respectability, the coming of sound and a large-scale audience. The period from 1913 to 1930 was one in which the cinema industry underwent dramatic restructuring, new chains, and when Hollywood substantially increased its presence in British cinemas. Cinema-going is then critically analysed in the context of two powerful myths; the 'Golden Age' and the 'universal audience'. The book also considers the state of cinema exhibition in Britain in the post-war period, and the terminal decline of cinema-going from the 1960s until 1984. It looks at the development of the multiplex in the United States from the 1960s and examines the importance of the shopping mall and the suburb as the main focus for these cinema developments. Finally, the book discusses the extent to which the multiplex 'experience' accounts for the increase in overall attendance; and how developments in the marketing of films have run in tandem with developments in the cinema.

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Pagnol as auteur
Brett Bowles

troupe of technicians, employees, and actors, he created an entirely self-sufficient, vertically integrated system for making and marketing films. In 1930s France, it was the only viable alternative to Paris and a model of efficiency that generated profit margins rivalling and often exceeding those of larger competitors based in the capital. Convinced that only the public had the right to judge his work and vindicated by its

in Marcel Pagnol
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Don Fairservice

Cutting inside the studio system By the mid-1930s the Hollywood studios had become bound together into a system of standardised production and marketing, films were being made within a very specific and manageable system of technical and narrative conventions and an agreed moral code of acceptable content had been introduced. These factors together defined what were considered to be the parameters of

in Film editing: history, theory and practice
Stuart Hanson

independent distributors are only able to make a limited number of prints, and the enormous cost of marketing films. 42 An exception to this might be the growth of films distributed in Britain from the Indian sub-continent, 55 in 2004 compared to 71 from all of Europe. 43 Though there are independent cinemas (such as Piccadilly Cinemas, which operates cinemas in Birmingham and Leicester) dedicated to showing

in From silent screen to multi-screen
John Izod, Karl Magee, Kathryn Hannan and Isabelle Gourdin-Sangouard

Anderson’s files) show total sales of just under $3.8 million. These comprised North American theatrical rentals just over half a million dollars; foreign rentals of just under half a million and video sales of $2.74 million. 99 Among the outgoings, distribution fees amounted to almost $1 million; advertising and marketing film and video releases came in at nearly $1.5 million; prints and tapes made up the balance of the

in Lindsay Anderson
Municipal culture in post-war Manchester
Peter Shapely

consultants employed by the council, believed the council could build an airport ‘better than any in this country and second to none in Europe’.47 The council became the driving force for progressive change as it took responsibility for major civic projects and for promoting the city. It created its own Publicity Committee, which eventually produced an hour-long marketing film, A City Speaks, in 1946.48 The film drew on civic pride, showing how it had developed, since Roman times, through to the Industrial Revolution, and how it had introduced a series of social reforms

in People, places and identities