Total war tends to create a situation that falls back on established social and cultural discourses and institutional arrangements at the same time that it provides the opportunity for a shifting and renegotiation of these arrangements. This book explores how the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY) drew upon, and/or subverted cultural mythologies to make sense of their wartime service. It focuses on this renegotiation of gender and examines seven key themes implicit in this process. The first theme concerns the ways women's military organizations utilized traditional notions of genteel femininity and its accompanying nurturance, cheerfulness and devotion in their promise of service, yet went beyond the parameters of such cultural mythologies. The second focuses on the gendering of military heroism. The third theme addresses the context of female military service in terms of the preparation women received, the opportunities they were given and the risks they took, and focuses on their coping behaviours. Theme four focuses specifically on women's transgression into the masculine terrain of driving and mechanics and shares the ways they developed skills and competencies previously off-limits for women. Such transgressions almost invariably led to women having to negotiate masculine authority and develop skills in autonomy, independence and assertiveness - the focus of theme five. The last two themes discussed in the book address the integration and consolidation of women's organizations as the war progressed and their service became indispensable.
thus with the creation of hierarchies of class, it was also always
associated with prescriptive ideas about sexual morality and gender
roles and so with the belief that men and women belonged in particular
places and spaces. Family and state power were associated, in
particular, with the expression of masculineauthority. Although
repeatedly imagined as natural, state strategies and imperial and
The Belgian convoy and Port à Binson Priory Hospital 1917
their plans for new expansion. It
also explores the concept of authority in terms of both power within the organization and the relationship of women to masculineauthority in the context of
war. This is theme ﬁve in the negotiation of gender relations. Although
McDougall led the FANY in altering relationships with men as authority ﬁgures and modelled autonomy and independence for women in war work, she
had her own problems with issues of power within the organization.
The Belgian convoy and Port à Binson Hospital
A convoy for the Belgians
McDougall enjoyed the
This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
-stop reveals one of the three women from La Bataille
d’Alger who again remains mute, as if to contrast with the vocal
assertiveness of Fatima herself. At three key moments in the narrative
Fatima has to assume a form of performative responsibility when confronted
with masculineauthority: taking upon herself her dead brother’s
mission within the FLN cell; negotiating with the French soldiers for the
return of her bag (with the
The Virgin Mary and the formation
of Victorian masculinities
ictorian religion was, at the official level, largely a masculine
enterprise. In neither church nor chapel (with a few exceptions)
could women preach or hold positions of authority; their role in
religious assemblies as in the home was to support male authority. The
clergy would appear to have been well-positioned to take advantage of the
religious endorsement of masculineauthority, given the sanction of their
profession as well as their sex. However, in the nineteenth century clerical
ideas can, for example, mutate from being a discourse of power to a
vehicle for dissent. 35 Harriet Bowtle’s words remind us of exactly
this point, revealing, as they do, the ways in which ideas can, at
times, serve to reaffirm power and yet simultaneously to hint at
critiques of it. Her appeal was, on the one hand, to a model of
masculineauthority that was properly paternalistic and humane, and her
Troubling race, ethnicity, and masculinity in Beowulf
than discomfort about forbidden erotic impulses. Beowulf's masculineauthority in this sexually charged battle is called into question not only by his near-defeat by Grendel's mother, but also by his problematic relationship to swords.
The possession of weapons, especially swords, is closely related to masculine identity in Anglo-Saxon culture.
One of the main Old English terms for ‘man’, wæpnedmann , and a variety of compounds signifying the male sex attested