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Technologies of mobility and transnational lives
Torben Krings, Elaine Moriarty, James Wickham, Alicja Bobek and Justyna Salamońska

. Users are able to set up a personal page for past pupils to access and then share information and photos. This was a very popular social networking site in the mid-2000s, coinciding with the mass emigration of young Polish graduates.1 Most participants have been involved in Nasza Klasa at some point. It seemed to be particularly important to migrants who were interested in renewing old contacts from Poland: [I]t was the only chance to contact people from high school, of whom I didn’t have any phone numbers or anything. And when I was logging into my class profile

in New mobilities in Europe
Theatre as critic and conscience of Celtic Tiger Ireland
Vic Merriman

economic sovereignty from the neocolonial clutches of the EU/IMF Troika, by 2014–15. The problem is that what is being protected in the face of a wholesale withdrawal of the State and its services is the failed economic infrastructure. Minimum social guarantees are disappearing in the face of a frenzied assault by new beasts, whose ‘appetite for prey’ is greater than any tiger – the voracious demons of the global market economy. Since Ireland’s economic collapse, the social landscape is marked by abandoned homes, a collapse in living standards, closed-­up shops and mass

in From prosperity to austerity
Philip Lynch

would uphold Britain’s ‘proud tradition of offering sanctuary to those who are fleeing injustice and wrong’. But this tradition of hospitality was now at risk – not from racism or an unwillingness to accept genuine refugees in Britain, but from a flawed asylum regime. The international system for dealing with refugees put in place by the 1951 Geneva Convention was no longer working effectively in a world of mass emigration – a view shared by the government. Hague claimed that up to 80 per cent of those claiming asylum had manifestly unfounded cases but few were

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Tina O’Toole

10 Adrienne Rich’s On Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence Tina O’Toole Introduction The 1980s are unlikely to be remembered positively by Irish feminists1 as it was a decade characterised primarily by a series of defeats such as the 1983 Pro-Life Constitutional Amendment and ensuing court cases taken by the anti-abortion movement against groups providing abortion information (Connolly, 2002: 155–84); by the death of Ann Lovett and the Joanne Hayes case;2 and by high unemployment and the concomitant re-emergence of mass emigration. Yet, despite this

in Mobilising classics
Brid Quinn and Bernadette Connaughton

greater affluence, consumerism and increased social mobility. These changes also led to a desire for political and social pluralism. Patterns of people movement altered hugely. 5306ST New Patterns-C/lb.qxd 42 3/9/09 16:45 Page 42 Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland Economic difficulties in Ireland had always resulted in mass emigration (particularly, post-Famine, in the 1950s and in the 1980s) but since the 1990s there is significant immigration made up of returning Irish emigrants and immigrants from all over the world seeking employment

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland
Tea, bread and nutritional decline
Ian Miller

could be moulded, through food intake, to suit economic ends. The mass emigration that accompanied the Famine fortified these ideas on Irish labouring potential. Many labourers emigrated to urban-industrial centres in America, Canada and Britain where they often secured employment in lowpaid, backbreaking jobs as they lacked capital and skills.8 They also tended to enter and leave work on a seasonal basis, being employed as harvesters or railway navvies.9 In 1852, land agent William Bullock Webster reported that Irish emigrants who had arrived in Canada, although

in Reforming food in post-Famine Ireland
Joanne Wilson and Lindsay Prior

surprising; previous years (1980 to 1987) had been marred by a prolonged economic recession, which saw living standards plummet, unemployment escalate (employment decreased by nearly 6% and 25% in manufacturing), and mass emigration rise (O’Donnell, 1998). Fearful of national insolvency and of a declining tax base, the document authors deployed an apparently objective and technical narrative of ‘efficiency’ to justify and legitimise real cuts in healthcare expenditure. They argued that the state was spending too much, given that more affluent countries were spending less

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
The curiosity of the Bulgarian case
Elena Simeonova

issue foreign passports to the Bulgarian Turks. On 29 May 1989, Zhivkov delivered a speech live on national television and radio, in which he underlined the Bulgarian origins of the Turks, but also gave them the right ‘to choose their motherland and to leave Bulgaria temporarily or permanently’. 5 This concession was a signal for the mass emigration of around 300,000 Bulgarian Turks – the so-called ‘big excursion’ – in the summer of 1989. The authorities were caught off-guard by the huge scale of the emigration and the country faced major problems with the harvest and

in The 1989 Revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe
Ben Tonra

sector remained overwhelmingly dependent upon the British market and its cheap food policy. In the face of these limitations, Irish fiscal and monetary policy pursued an orthodox conservative turn that prioritised balanced budgets. Political pressures began to grow to address the obvious shortcomings in economic policy and the implications of mass emigration on Irish society and local communities. While access to the emigrant boat relieved the political pressures that might otherwise have existed in the face of mass unemployment at home, there was a clear understanding

in Global citizen and European Republic
Ben Tonra

to pay for additional social welfare costs (Dornbusch 1989). In sum, by the early to mid-1980s the Irish economy was stagnating, unemployment was at a record 18 per cent, the debt to GDP ratio was rising rapidly and mass emigration had re-emerged at a rate of 1.4 per cent of population per year. Substantial EU funding is seen as having had a significant impact in mitigating the worst of this economic slump and later in pump-priming the Irish economy for its subsequent boom – with transfers totalling 7 per cent of GNP at their height and adding an estimated

in Global citizen and European Republic