The working lives of paid carers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
Editors: Anne Borsay and Pamela Dale

This book seeks to integrate the history of mental health nursing with the wider history of institutional and community care for people experiencing mental illness and/or living with a learning disability. It develops new research questions by drawing together a concern with exploring the class, gender, skills and working conditions of practitioners with an assessment of the care regimes staff helped create and patients’ experiences of them. Contributors from a range of disciplines use a variety of source material to examine both continuity and change in the history of care over two centuries. The book benefits from a foreword by Mick Carpenter and will appeal to researchers and students interested in all aspects of the history of nursing and the history of care. The book is also designed to be accessible to practitioners and the general reader.

Addressing the consequences of conflict and trauma in Northern Ireland

Conflict poses considerable challenges for services that support communities, and in particular those affected by violence. This book describes the work undertaken in Omagh against the background of the most recent period of violent conflict in Ireland, and specifically it draws upon the work following the Omagh bombing. The bombing came just four months after the Northern Ireland peace agreement, known formally as the Belfast Agreement of 1998, and more informally as the Good Friday Agreement. The book describes the impact of the bomb and the early responses. Local trade unions, employers and the business community played key roles at times, particularly in underlining the need for solidarity and in identifying themselves with the desire for peace. The book looks at the outcome of needs-assessments undertaken following the Omagh bombing. The efforts to understand the mental health and related impact of the violence associated with the Troubles in Northern Ireland over the period 1969 to 2015 are focused in detail. The later efforts to build services for the benefit of the wider population are described, drawing upon the lessons gained in responding to the Omagh bombing. The developments in therapy, in training and education, and in research and advocacy are described with reference to the work of the Northern Ireland Centre for Trauma and Transformation (NICTT). The book draws together key conclusions about the approaches that could be taken to address mental health and well-being as an essential component of a peace-building project.

referrals to a mental health department: 2001 An audit of referrals for psychiatric services to the Mater Hospital Belfast, which continues to serve an area deeply affected by the years of violence and characterised by significant socio-economic and cultural divisions, and deprivation, was undertaken by Curran and Miller. They found that ‘only 6% of referrals and admissions had as

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findings have been found in relation to children through studies undertaken over the same period. The overview reveals that, following a period of apparently little evidence of the impact of the violence on the mental health of the population, it was not until the 1980s that substantive evidence of the impact of the years of violence began to build. Also, research began to reveal something of the dynamics of

in Conflict, peace and mental health

Within months it was very clear that the bombing had been a significant stressor in the life of the community. The implications for mental health and well-being were a matter of concern – but poorly defined, and it was not known what the longer-term consequences would be. To ensure that the right type, amount and duration of services would be in place to address the

in Conflict, peace and mental health
The working lives of paid carers from 1800 to the 1990s

1 Mental health nursing: the working lives of paid carers from 1800 to the 1990s Anne Borsay and Pamela Dale At the beginning of the twenty-first century mental health issues are being debated at a local, national and international level.1 Positively, there is an argument that the global promotion of mental well-being will deliver benefits ranging from personal fulfilment to improved public health. Yet there remain significant concerns about the social and economic costs of mental illness, which fall on individuals, families and communities. Interestingly

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The preceding chapters have provided an account of the experiences of responding to the adverse mental health and well-being consequences of the Omagh bombing and other violence in Northern Ireland, and a wider review of the impact of the Troubles. This final chapter will outline some of the key conclusions, focusing on those lessons and considerations that will hopefully be of

in Conflict, peace and mental health
DGH psychiatric nurses at Withington General Hospital, 1971-91

’d probably put it down as being more progressive than most places now.1 The post-war history of mental health services is dominated by the transition from mental hospitals to community care, with a corresponding shift from asylum nurse to community psychiatric nurse (CPN).2 Within this broad history, however, the role of the district general hospital (DGH) psychiatric unit is often overlooked. Sited in local hospitals, these units were arguably an important intermediary between the old institutional system and community care as it is currently conceived. Indeed, in the

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Recruitment and retention in mental health nursing in England, 1948-68

8 ‘The weakest link in the chain of nursing’? Recruitment and retention in mental health nursing in England, 1948–68 Claire Chatterton After the Second World War, when the National Health Service (NHS) was being established in the United Kingdom, there was such a shortage of nurses that Aneurin Bevan, the Minister of Health, described it as approaching ‘a national disaster’.1 This was an issue for all areas of nursing at this time. Staff shortages were, however, particularly acute in mental nursing (as well as in the field then referred to as mental deficiency

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professional and policy agendas while maintaining a clear focus on client needs. In the early post-war period, a range of hostels and centres were established in the United Kingdom for service-users including people with learning disabilities, clients of mental health services, so-called ‘problem families’ and vulnerable young adults. In these hostels and centres, the warden was the key member of staff. Their role has been seriously neglected in the literature, even though their experiences 191 Mental health nursing open up wider questions about social class, gender

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