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Amanda Alencar
Julia Camargo

promote refugee livelihoods. Broadly described as ‘mental maps representing spaces to which people relate and with which they identify’ ( Boudreau, 2007 : 2596), spatial imaginaries allow us to analyse underpinning assumptions and understandings of technology produced in association with the practices of using technologies to create livelihoods in specific circumstances and contexts of forced migration. Data about the efficacy and impact of digital work on refugees’ lives are limited. This

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This book offers a nuanced and detailed examination of Russia’s international activity. In broad terms, the book contributes to two of the most important current debates about contemporary Russian actions: whether Moscow is acting strategically or opportunistically, and whether this should be understood in regional or global terms. The book goes against the majority opinions on both questions, and introduces contributions in a number of under-researched themes. It argues that Moscow is not acting in a simply ad hoc, reactive way, but in a consistently strategic manner, and that this is best understood not by analysing Russia’s return to specific regions, but in a more holistic way with a global horizon, linking activity across different regions. This means that the Russian challenge is likely to continue rather than fade away.

The book addresses core themes of Russian activity – military, energy, and economic. But it offers an unusual multi-disciplinary analysis to these themes, incorporating both regional and thematic specialist expertise. Underpinned by detailed analyses of the revolution in Russian geospatial capabilities and the establishment of a strategic planning foundation, the book includes chapters on military and maritime strategies, energy security, and economic diversification and influence. This serves to highlight the connections between military and economic interests that shape and drive Russian strategy.

Abstract only
Andrew Monaghan

all the tools of state in an effective, integrated manner over the 2020s? Nevertheless, Russian activities in specific regions warrant being seen in the wider context of Moscow's global horizon and stated intent to act as a player with global interests and reach. Debate about whether Russia qualifies as a “great power” will undoubtedly continue, but the Russian leadership is – in more practical terms – attempting to position Russia as a ubiquitous power. Understanding this mental map of Russia as a ubiquitous power is essential as the US and UK

in Russian Grand Strategy in the era of global power competition
Geoffrey Hicks

determined during the crisis; in other words, what might be described as the Derbyite ‘mental map’. Whatever its merits or flaws, the policy which the Government pursued in 1859 was consistent with the policy which Derby and Malmesbury had advocated since the late 1840s. It exhibited all the same features, and grew out of the same assumptions, that had marked Derbyite Conservative attitudes to foreign policy for a decade. Although it sought to preserve peace and/or limit war, it was determinedly non-interventionist; or, rather, it was not interventionist in the

in Peace, war and party politics
Ann Stephen

Spatial concerns and the mapping of place are not generally associated with early conceptual art. In fact, Lucy Lippard and John Chandler’s article ‘The dematerialisation of art’, which marked that foundational shift in the late 1960s, focused on anti-aesthetic strategies within a critique of the international market structure of art. In the process, origins (outside modernism) and other symbolic and political geographies and mental maps were, if not ignored, largely displaced. This chapter traces one of these strange but identifiable paths to conceptual art, through the early collaborations of Ian Burn and Mel Ramsden (IBMR), prior to their forming part of the New York wing of Art & Language. In 1966 these two young artists were obsessed by the idea of space and perception, even in their entirely theoretical texts. Over this period Burn had sent back minimal-type painting from London for exhibition in Australia, where both had previously lived. The work met with blank incomprehension, which led them to make a work about distance, Soft-Tape (1966). This chapter looks at this their first collaboration, and one later one, Comparative Models (1971–2), to assess how these quasi-installations mapped the position of the viewer, creating an acute awareness of spatial matters. It also asks how the idea of travel, distance and international distribution informed their practice, and how these early collaborations would shape their future participation in Art & Language.

in Charting space
Mythologising a nation, performing an alliance
Maria Mälksoo

This chapter tackles seascape as a symbolic space. It explores the political symbolisation and the symbolic power of the sea via a twofold empirical focus. The first move examines the maritime imagining of a nation-space with the example of Estonia’s ex-president and ethnographer Lennart Meri’s historical travelogue Hõbevalge [Silver White] (1976). This imaginative reconstruction of Estonia’s ancient seafaring history and connectivities with the Baltic Sea region and beyond was a conscious exercise in linking a forgotten Baltic province to the mental map of a Nordic-Baltic region. Silver White provided a national mythology for a small nation which was denied an autonomous political present and future as part of the Soviet Union. As a second move, the chapter looks at the emerging maritime posture and posturing of NATO in the Baltic Sea region. Proceeding from Catherine Bell’s understanding of ritualisation as a culturally strategic way of acting in the world and exercising power, NATO’s maritime presence in the Nordic-Baltic space emerges as a case of ritualised performance of deterrence towards Russia. In both instances of cultivating a national mythscape via the sea and performing a multinational military alliance via exercising extended maritime deterrence, the Baltic Sea emerges as a crucial arena for creating and enacting political subjectivities and communities in world politics.

in The Sea and International Relations
Interview with Patrick Keiller
Paul Newland

book, The Image of the City (1960), by the American urban planner Kevin Lynch. In this book, Lynch discusses the ways in which we form mental maps of urban areas, through what he calls their ‘imageability’. He argues that our mental maps of cities are built out of paths (streets, pavements, other channels in which people travel); edges (perceived boundaries); districts (relatively large sections of the city that have a ‘character’); nodes (focal points, intersections or loci); and landmarks. It seems to me that, through your focus on signs, markers, paths and so on

in British rural landscapes on film
Abstract only
Andrew Monaghan

considerable success, and by the end of the 2010s, Moscow was playing an active role not only in Libya and the Central Mediterranean, but also in other parts of Africa, and, as noted above, in many other regions across the globe, too. The second theme is about “mental maps”: the “landscape of the official mind”, or how Moscow sees the world and divides it up. Mental maps are a mix of objective knowledge and subjective perceptions that reflect the construction of the world around us. They are symbolic representations of spatial

in Russian Grand Strategy in the era of global power competition
Abstract only
Borderlands and interfaces
Michael Gott

globe in Terraferma or the outdated paper map of Yugoslavia in Eden – and how we mentally map borderlines and borderlands depends on our individual positioning. Not everyone experiences borders the same way, even if they may be physically present at them or have traversed them themselves, as is surely the case with many borderlines represented on screen in my case studies. Images and narratives

in Screen borders
Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.