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An Introductory Survey
Richard Sharp

Architecture and visual arts in general have been subjects of a growing body of recent scholarship connected with the ecclesiastical history of the ‘Long Eighteenth Century’, but little attention has been given to portraiture. Although honourable mention should be made of pioneering work by John Ingamells on painted episcopal portraits, and by Peter Forsaith, very recently, on Methodist portrait prints, other aspects of this extensive subject still await investigation. The article outlines the development of engraved portrayal of clergy, mainly of the Church of England, during the two centuries before production of multiple images was taken over by photography, and indicates how the quantity, variety, and dissemination of such material can provide some index of the priorities of a pre-photographic age. It does not aim to be a comprehensive or a complete survey of the corpus of engraved portraiture; nevertheless, this article provides an initial guide to the abundance of previously unexplored illustrative material, and may suggest a framework for further exploration. It is hoped that future scholars will build on this initial work to enable a complete catalogue of such images to be developed and further explored.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
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David Annwn Jones

impact of Hans Baldung’s engravings on viewers ( section 2.2 ) and the wide popularity of the medium gave rise to depictions of religious and Classical subjects, as well as tableaux of witches, memento mori and danse macabres . During the early 1780s, Henry Fuseli’s paintings achieved a high degree of notoriety and success. James Neagle’s engravings and John Raphael Smith’s mezzotints of Fuseli

in Gothic effigy
Douglas Fordham

Image reproduction in the eighteenth century was dominated by the single-sheet intaglio print, which could take the form of etching, engraving, aquatint, mezzotint or some combination of these intaglio techniques. Even for those with access to original works of art, the preponderance of imagery relating to Britain’s overseas interests would have come to them through the

in Exhibiting the empire
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Mechthild Fend

service to him in an argument against Buffon and in favour of the division of humans into ‘entirely different races’, a difference he believed to be plainly visible.18 While the two engravings and their commentators, Riolan and Ruysch, addressed the layering and, in the latter case, also the coloration of the skin as a matter of black and white, there is one exceptional medical illustration which brings colour into the image (Plate 12). It is a colour mezzotint dealing not only with the microscopic structure of skin but also with the issue of skin colour. It accompanies

in Fleshing out surfaces
Andrew Smith

), ‘Lost Hearts’ (1895), ‘The Mezzotint’ (1904), and ‘The Haunted Dolls’ House’ (1925). The different levels at which uncanniness is manifested are also significant. The uncanny appears in the content of the tales, and is also apparent in the disjunction between their rhetorical tone (familiar and conversational) and their subject matter (abduction and murder). What is revealing across these tales is how

in The ghost story, 1840–1920
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Andrew Smith

figures from their areas of historical expertise and the disjunction between their world of quiet scholarship and the embedded Gothic narratives is striking. However, in a tale such as ‘The Mezzotint’ (1904) James subtly displaces the ostensible Gothic narrative of the engraving with the seemingly amoral milieu of academic enquiry. His dons become truly Gothic due to their lack of basic human empathy

in The ghost story, 1840–1920
Mechthild Fend

Cennini’s late medieval Libro dell’Arte, discussed at the outset of this book, had been rediscovered and republished in the early nineteenth century, with the first French translation provided by Ingres’ student Victor Mottez in 1858.13 It explained the technique of fresco painting and the ways of putting a figure into relief via the literal incarnation – the making of flesh on the wall – of the face of the Virgin Mary. In the first half of the eighteenth century, Le Blon introduced the technique of the colour mezzotint mainly to meet the challenge of reproducing flesh

in Fleshing out surfaces
Luxury, portraiture and the court of Charles II
Laura L. Knoppers

, Cleveland herself is both ‘natural’ and ornate, subject and object of luxury. 276 277 Luxury, portraiture and the court of Charles II Figure 13.5  Henri Gascar, Portrait of Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland. In another version of the painting (see Figure 13.6), made into a mezzotint by Gascar himself, the flowers are replaced by Cleveland’s young daughter, Lady Barbara Fitzroy, who wears a richly embroidered, square-​ necked gown, and holds a dove on a leash. This composition (reversed in direction in the mezzotint) uses an oval, horizontal framework, opening up

in From Republic to Restoration
Mechthild Fend

patent for the technology in 1737.80 The printing technique as such was the mezzotint, a method developed in the mid-seventeenth century enabling the production of prints with a large variation of tonal values between a saturated velvety black and sheer white. The painterly effect of the mezzotint was enhanced by the use of coloured inks, and the technique allowed gradual optical mixing of the three superimposed layers of yellow, red and blue inks when working with a set of three copperplates. Eventually a forth plate for black ink was used in order to reproduce

in Fleshing out surfaces
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Andrew Smith

Gothic, Chapter 7 examines how ghosts function as either complex critiques of the colonial, or provide a gloss on feelings of isolation, as in Dickens’s American ghost. 12 Chapter 8 explores the ghost stories of M.R. James and examines how the seemingly conservative Victorian and Edwardian world of James’s tales conceals a critique of an apparently amoral modernism. Tales such as ‘The Mezzotint

in The ghost story, 1840–1920