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Middle-class men on the English Home Front, 1914–18
Author: Laura Ugolini

Historians of the First World War often seem to have a very clear idea of who middle-class men were and how they reacted to the outbreak of the conflict. This book explores the experiences of middle-class men on the English home front during the First World War. It first focuses on the first twelve months or so of war, a period when many middle-class men assumed that the war could hardly fail to affect them. The book then delves deeper into middle-class men's understandings of civilians' appropriate behaviour in wartime. It explores middle-class men's reasons for not conforming to dominant norms of manly conduct by enlisting, and considers individuals' experiences of 'non-enlistment'. It also focuses on middle-class men's involvement in volunteer activities on the home front. The book also focuses on middle-class men's working lives, paying particular attention to those aspects of work that were most affected by the war. It considers civilian men's responses to the new ambivalence towards profit-making, as well as to the doubts cast on the 'value' of much middle-class, whitecollar work in wartime. The book further assesses the ways in which middle-class men negotiated their roles as wartime consumers and explores the impact of war on middle-class relationships. It considers the nature of wartime links between civilians and servicemen, as well as the role of the paterfamilias within the middle-class family, before turning to focus on the relationship between civilian fathers and combatant sons.

The milieu culture of DIY punk
Peter Webb

a small victory over the hypocrisy of the guards.29 Others in Crass saw such acts of rebellion as a challenge to live up to. John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger is continually evoked within the band’s lyrical themes. A working-class and upper middle-class relationship portrayed as a fault-line of antagonism, not necessarily because of the class difference but because of the character, Alison, the wife of Jimmy Porter, wanting to maintain a normal domesticity that strangles the life and creative impulse out of her husband. He ends up having an affair with his wife

in Fight back
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Family and illegitimacy
Ginger S. Frost

parents, then, but they also lost each other.9 As long as cohabitees passed as married, their 182 Illegitimacy in English law and society, 1860–1930 children’s lives resembled others in the same class, but any death or desertion inevitably both exposed their status and affected their right to relief. They then had to endure the legal disadvantages of being ‘bastards’. Class and cohabitation Though far more children in cohabiting unions were working class, a minority involved cross-class or middle-class relationships. Cross-class cohabitation was a particularly vexed

in Illegitimacy in English law and society,1860–1930
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Middle-class men and the First World War
Laura Ugolini

attention not only to continuities, but also to changes in middle-class practices, both those self-imposed as a patriotic duty, and those dictated by wartime shortages and high prices. The chapter then assesses the ways in which middle-class men negotiated their roles as wartime consumers and suggests that consumption provided one of the main arenas where they sought to define themselves as responsible, patriotic citizens, in contrast to ‘others’ condemned as selfish, heedless and unpatriotic. Finally, Chapter 8 concludes the book by exploring the impact of war on middle-class

in Civvies