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From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

the humanitarian sector, which prioritises cost-efficiency, value for money and steps to reduce refugees’ dependency on aid (and, of course, international actors’ responsibilities towards refugees). 13 Anonymous interview, 4 April 2018. 14 Anonymous interview, 6 April 2018. 15 It is notable that Palestinian refugees used to rely on the expertise of midwives, usually older or elderly women whose knowledge of childbirth enabled them to support other women throughout pregnancy

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Maternal health in English prisons, 1853–1955

Should pregnant women be sent to prison? Is prison a place for the birth and care of babies? Can it ever be? This book is the first extensive historical examination of how the modern prison system sought to answer these perennial questions. The book takes the reader through the prison gates to demonstrate that, although a common feature of everyday life in women’s prisons, pregnancy, birth and motherhood were rarely fully considered at policy level. Instead, the experiences of mothers and children were shaped by a myriad of factors including debates about reconciling the management of institutional discipline with the maintenance of health and issues of gender and class. Lamented as an inalienable heritage of woe but also as an opportunity for the closer supervision of mothers, prison births evoked intense debate and required the negotiation of obdurate regimes. The book reveals how oscillating debates about the purpose of prisons shaped the punitive, reformatory and medical treatment of confined mothers. It also challenges scholarly debates about institutional discipline by delving further into the role of prisoners and prison staff in shaping the terms of their incarceration.

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Mothers, midwives and morals
Margaret Brazier

. In their antipathy to single motherhood and concerns about sexual behaviour, legislators in 1990 followed a long tradition in English law of seeking to regulate morality and, in particular, women’s sexual morality. From circa 1500 until the mid-eighteenth century, female midwives played a dual role providing care to birthing women and ‘policing’ morals. For over 200 years

in Law and healing
A feminist analysis of the Neary and Halappanavar cases
Joan McCarthy

in ethics as elsewhere (Walker, 2009: 5) Key to my analysis is a desire to understand the mechanisms by which the voices and concerns of the women at the centre of these two cases were ignored, marginalised and trivialised. I address each case in turn, paying particular attention to the way in which an excess of moral authority was vested in religious leaders, religious doctrine and doctors and a correlated lack of authority was invested in women patients and midwives. DONNELLY 9780719099465 PRINT.indd 9 12/10/2015 15:59 10 Context and care Unnecessary

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare
Katherine Byrne

-contested area ( Mander and Murphy-Lawless, 2013 ) and the Royal College of Midwives in Britain has been at the centre of controversy in the last few years concerning the relationship between their anti-intervention position and birth complications and mortality ( Sandeman, 2017 ). As this chapter will explore, then, this seemingly ‘cosy’ television series is in fact right at the centre of the ongoing debates surrounding obstetrics and

in Diagnosing history
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A history of a stormy marriage

Law and healing is a colourful and critical account of the longstanding ‘marriage’ between two fundamental pillars of human society, law and medicine. The book addresses medico-legal history, exploring aspects of English law’s fascinating and sometimes acrimonious relationship with healing and healers. It challenges assumptions that medical law is new and that when law engaged with medicine, judges deferred to the ‘medical man’. It traces the regulation of healing from the dominance of the Church, and goes on to examine how the battles between different groups of lay ‘doctors’, physicians, surgeons and apothecaries were fought out in the law courts, the Royal Court and Parliament. Malpractice litigation and predictions of malpractice crises are shown to date back to the fourteenth century. Evidence of judicial deference is scant until late in the nineteenth century. Medical law today addresses moral dilemmas arising in medical practice and biomedical science. Considering historical perceptions of the human body from the womb to the grave, this work identifies themes persisting through medico-legal history and how history repeats itself. The book assesses both how English law responded to changes in ‘scientific’ understanding of bodies and how ‘science’, or what was thought to be science, influenced law. Bizarre theories about biology are seen to buttress laws of primogeniture and legal incapacities imposed on married women. The book considers how in the nineteenth century medical practitioners gradually acquired a strong voice in law-making on morals as much as medical practice.

Women’s claims for financial support
Lindsay R. Moore

4 Wives and (unwed) mothers: women’s claims for financial support T he responsibilities incurred by men upon marriage and fatherhood were legally enforced by local authorities and the women who had a stake in seeing that these obligations were upheld. Wives who had been deserted or neglected by their husbands appealed to local magistrates to compel their husbands to provide financial maintenance, while unwed mothers and midwives often worked with local legal authorities to hold fathers accountable for child support. When male heads of household shirked their

in Women before the court
Liesbeth Hesselink

concentrating on sick-nursing and on founding hospitals. Some were exclusively intended for Europeans; others welcomed all ethnic groups. Of a slightly different nature was the Semarang-based Society for the Promotion of Native Nursing Practices, whose aim was to promote 148 Nursing in the Dutch East Indies 7.1  Mrs Bervoets and her husband with student nurses and student midwives in Mojowarno around 1910 the interests of native nursing – just as the mission intended to do.18 Business interest occasioned a need for medical care among companies to serve their employees

in Colonial caring
Jolien Gijbels
and
Kaat Wils

accident succeeded in becoming a doctor, could no longer be considered a woman – she would be ‘a virago’, a ‘monstrous being’. Academy members also countered Pirmez’s argument that women doctors would lower the barrier for female patients to consult a physician. Wasn’t it telling, they stated, that while lower-class women relied on female midwives to

in Medical histories of Belgium
Tim Allender

Midwives Female medical care was also subjected to similar Western stereotyping. As discussed earlier, this had been firmly built upon the foundation of mission conversion strategies directed towards broad sections of Indian communities because, in the previous two generations, a masculine raj had been too slow to respond to even the needs of Western women. However, missionary

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932