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Luca Raineri
and
Francesco Strazzari

leaders. Though, the multifaceted nature of the ‘migration crisis’ – and the polysemy of a designation that encompasses humanitarian, security, economic and identity concerns – made the identification of the most appropriate response strategy a highly divisive question across Europe. Taking this inherent ambiguity as a starting point for our investigation, our contribution re-traces the processes that have

in The EU and crisis response
David Rieff

. If humanitarian certainties have been upended, it is not in Sri Lanka, or even Syria or Afghanistan, but in the NGO response to the migration crisis in Greece and in the Mediterranean. For here, whether they like it or not, when they rescue people at sea who are trying to get to Europe, relief NGOs are involved not just in caritative work, whose deontology is relatively straightforward ethically; here, they are important actors in a profound political struggle, whose outcome, along with the response or non-response to climate change, is likely to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Caroline Abu Sa’Da, General Director of SOS MEDITERRANEE Suisse
Juliano Fiori

In this interview, Caroline Abu Sa’Da, General Director of SOS MEDITERRANEE Suisse, discusses search-and-rescue operations in the Mediterranean Sea, in particular those conducted by her organisation. She explains that as a European citizen movement, SOS MEDITERRANEE has adopted a hybrid and politicised approach, which represents a new kind of humanitarian engagement. And she reflects on the challenges of protecting and supporting those crossing the Mediterranean.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt
,
Sharon O’Brien
,
Patrick Cadwell
, and
Dónal P. O’Mathúna

diversity and appropriate formats have also been identified as communicative challenges for humanitarian monitoring and evaluation in South Sudan, especially the ‘large number of national languages spoken and low literacy rates’ ( Steets et al. , 2016 : 28). Research on Greece’s migration crisis has illustrated a need for similar considerations. It has shown, too, that links between language and ICT innovations are complex. For instance, findings based on surveys with 202

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Darryl Stellmach
,
Margaux Pinaud
,
Margot Tudor
, and
Larissa Fast

Migration Crisis , Mediterranean Politics , 21 : 2 , 316 – 20 , doi: 10.1080/13629395.2016.1145825 . Kak , A. (ed.) ( 2020 ), ‘ Regulating Biometrics: Global Approaches and Urgent Questions ’, AI Now , https://ainowinstitute.org/regulatingbiometrics.pdf (accessed 1 July 2022

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Voices from Europe’s ‘migrant crisis’

Reclaiming Migration critically assesses the EU’s migration policy agenda by directly engaging the voices of Europe’s so-called migrant crisis that otherwise remain unheard: those of people on the move. It undertakes an extensive analysis of a counter-archive of testimonies co-produced with people migrating across the Mediterranean during 2015 and 2016, to document the ways in which EU policy developments both produce and perpetuate the precarity of those migrating under perilous conditions. The book shows how testimonies based on lived experiences of travelling to – and arriving in – the EU draw attention to the flawed assumptions embedded in the deterrence paradigm and policies of anti-smuggling; in protection mechanisms and asylum procedures that rely on simplistic understandings of the migratory journey; and in the EU’s self-projection as a place of human rights and humanitarianism. Yet, it also goes further to reveal how experiences of precarity, which such policies give rise to, are inseparable from claims for justice that are advanced by people on the move, who collectively provide a damning critique of the EU policy agenda. Reclaiming Migration develops a distinctive ‘anti-crisis’ approach to the analysis of migratory politics and shows how migration forms part of a broader movement that challenges the injustices of Europe’s ‘postcolonial present’. Written collectively by a team of esteemed scholars from across multiple disciplines, the book serves as an important contribution to debates in migration, border and refugee studies, as well as more widely to debates about postcolonialism and the politics of knowledge production.

Abstract only
Crisis and change
Kathryn Simpson
and
Michael Holmes

both from the consequences of the Arab Spring uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa in the early 2010s and from the Ukrainian Revolution of 2014. The destabilisation triggered by the Arab Spring movements contributed strongly to the Mediterranean migration crisis from 2015. This in turn contributed to the rise of populist parties in many EU countries, which played into the Brexit referendum in

in Ireland and the European Union
Vicki Squire
,
Nina Perkowski
,
Dallal Stevens
, and
Nick Vaughan-Williams

narrative of Europe's so-called migration crisis came to frame dominant understandings of and policy responses to increased arrivals and deaths at sea. As will be made clear, however, we do not posit a linear causal relationship between event and response in this context. The book as a whole argues that the narrative of ‘crisis’ has had a transformational effect on the social realities that it claims merely to describe. That is to say, the crisis narrative must be seen as a political intervention that actively came to shape – and not merely respond to – the course of

in Reclaiming migration
From opt-outs to solidarity?
Aideen Elliott

This chapter examines migration policy, looking first at Ireland’s historical position as a country of emigration and then examining how the EU’s approach to issues of migration and asylum has developed. It then explores in detail the EU’s migration crisis and Ireland’s contribution to the response, noting that Ireland has tended to associate itself with the more progressive group of member states in the EU on this issue.

in Ireland and the European Union
Abstract only
Radical right impact on mainstream parties
Michael Minkenberg
and
Zsuzsanna Végh

Under the assumption that when having coalition and/or blackmail potential radical right parties can influence not only the strategic response, but also the positions of their mainstream competitors, the chapter examines the development of party positions in the seven countries between 2000 and 2016. Building on the Chapel House Expert Survey and the authors’ own survey, the development of parties’ positions is studied first along the GAL-TAN scale to reflect on any potential shifts toward the “Traditional-Authoritarian-Nationalist” end of the spectrum. Subsequently, shifts in party positions regarding ethnic and national minorities are also studied. Finally, the chapter discusses party positions on the radical right’s new scapegoats, refugees, and asylum-seekers, which has been uniquely collected by the authors’ survey for the first time and which overall shows that in the aftermath of the 2015 peak of the refugee and migration crisis, radical right parties and most of their mainstream competitors adopted just as and at times even more restrictive positions regarding these groups as they previously did regarding ethnic and national minorities. Based on the empirical observations, the chapter argues that where mainstream parties’ positions either along the GAL-TAN scale or on policy issues shifted in a restrictive direction in response to the radical right’s blackmail potential or following mainstream parties’ positive engagement with the radical right, the shifts tend to last – even if the radical right eventually falls out of parliament.

in Depleting Democracies