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British news media, war and theory in the 2003 invasion of Iraq

This book analyses British news media coverage of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. It describes the analytical framework that serves as the basis for theoretically informed and systematic analysis of wartime media performance. The book synthesises a range of models, hypotheses and explanatory variables to set out a framework composed of three models of news media performance: the elite-driven model, the independent model and the oppositional model. It provides three case studies which, in different ways, illuminate each model of news media performance in wartime. The three case studies include the case of Jessica Lynch, the case of Ali Abbas and the case of the anti-war movement. The book then presents an account of how the relationship between foreign policy, news media and war might be expected to operate, based on current theoretical understanding. In order to place British coverage of the invasion in context, the book offers brief summaries of the structure and character of Britain's television news services and its press. The book provides an analysis of the ways in which the news media's visual depictions of the war reinforced supportive coverage. It is devoted to documenting and analysing evidence for negotiated and oppositional coverage. The book also examines the representation of civilian casualties, military casualties and humanitarian operations across both television and press, three subject areas that generated a good deal of media criticism.

Evidence for negotiated and oppositional coverage
Piers Robinson, Peter Goddard, Katy Parry, Craig Murray, and Philip M. Taylor

6 ‘Independence, diversity and professional autonomy’: Evidence for negotiated and oppositional coverage Overview This chapter is devoted to documenting and analysing evidence for negotiated and oppositional coverage. This is done in three ways: first, by examining critical coverage that emerged across specific subject areas; second, by describing patterns of coverage in particular media outlets; and third, by presenting time series data. The chapter begins by examining the representation of civilian casualties, military casualties and humanitarian operations

in Pockets of resistance
Piers Robinson, Peter Goddard, Katy Parry, Craig Murray, and Philip M. Taylor

legitimacy of US foreign policy, but such doubts are rarely aired within mainstream media. Finally, supportive coverage tends to play down or ignore the bloody reality of war, with few images of civilian and military casualties reaching the news (Morrison, 1992: 68). In sum, the essence of supportive reporting of war is patriotic, giving support to the military campaign and viewing it from the perspective of ‘our’ soldiers. Criticism of government and military is minimal, with little attention given to wider political and historical contexts and few images of death

in Pockets of resistance
John Mueller

October 2003) when the options were posed this way: “Do you think the United States should keep its military forces in Iraq until civil order is restored there, even if that means continued US military casualties, or, do you think the United States should withdraw its military forces from Iraq in order to avoid further US military casualties, even if that means civil order is not restored there?” But in

in Intelligence and national security policymaking on Iraq
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Patterns of support, negotiation and opposition
Piers Robinson, Peter Goddard, Katy Parry, Craig Murray, and Philip M. Taylor

Oppositional model Sky, ITV, BBC Sun, Mail, Times, Telegraph Battle, justifications for war (esp. humanitarian) Channel 4 Mirror, Independent, Guardian Civilian casualties, military casualties, humanitarian operations, law and order Ali Abbas Mirror, Independent, Guardian Civilian casualties, military casualties, humanitarian operations, law and order Ali Abbas Jessica Lynch, anti-war movement Jessica Lynch case study provides an ‘ideal type’ example of the propensity of news media to champion ‘good news’ stories from the battlefront; moreover, it highlights the

in Pockets of resistance
The surviving evidence for Newark-upon-Trent, 1642–46
Stuart B. Jennings

seventy-four Berkshire parishes and offers the conclusion that pits were constructed for military casualties either on the field of conflict or possibly beyond the local parish churchyard.34 Other garrisons such as Banbury clearly record the burial of soldiers in the churchyard during the outbreaks of plague over the civilwar period. Fifty-eight soldiers were recorded in the burial registers as part of the overall total of 225 interments in the parish churchyard during the 1644 plague epidemic. The pre-war annual mortality rate for the parish was between thirty to

in Battle-scarred
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Military operations
Michael Clarke

Cold War took place in quite new circumstances. As characterised by Rupert Smith, these new operations could hardly have been more different. They were, he says, subject to shifting political objectives, conducted ‘amongst the people’, they created timeless commitments, required improvised weapons and organisation, were fought against non-state organisations, and were greatly constrained by the notion that the force ‘must be preserved’. Not least, he points out, there was little appetite for tolerating military

in The challenge of defending Britain
Tony Blair, humanitarian intervention, and the “new doctrine of the international community”
Jim Whitman

awfulness of politically driven human suffering on a large scale; an acute sensitivity to military casualties; and a calculation (if only at the gut level) of the costs and risks of deploying soldiers into dangerous situations. For their part, politicians will routinely try to maximize their room for manoeuvre—at the very least so as not to be at the mercy of events, but also to pursue the particulars of a

in Intelligence and national security policymaking on Iraq
The American Red Cross in the last war of Cuban independence (1895–1898)
Francisco Javier Martínez

Activities focused on the relief of Spanish army officers and, soldiers and comprised the establishment of hospitals and food kitchens, as well as giving money and clothes to the sick and wounded who had to be shipped back to Spain. In the aftermath of the war, SRC committees in Cuba aided the repatriation of tens of thousands of military casualties to dozens of Red Cross hospitals ( sanatorios ) provisionally established throughout Spain since the beginning of the conflict. 48 These activities sparked the criticism of Cuban patriots, who strongly censured the SRC

in The Red Cross Movement
Jonathan Rayner

assert the Navy’s seniority to the other services even in such an example of unity of effort. Kinross’s acceptance of the responsibility which attends pre-eminence is expressed when he tells his crew that the success of the evacuation will be ‘measured by the smallness of the military casualties, not the naval ones’. While the Captain talks nonchalantly to Army officers on the bridge, Blake and others tend the rescued soldiers below decks. The devotion to and integration with the ship which is exhibited by Kinross, Hardy and Blake is also expected of their families

in The naval war film