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The First Aid Nursing Yeomanry in the First World War
Author: Janet Lee

Total war tends to create a situation that falls back on established social and cultural discourses and institutional arrangements at the same time that it provides the opportunity for a shifting and renegotiation of these arrangements. This book explores how the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY) drew upon, and/or subverted cultural mythologies to make sense of their wartime service. It focuses on this renegotiation of gender and examines seven key themes implicit in this process. The first theme concerns the ways women's military organizations utilized traditional notions of genteel femininity and its accompanying nurturance, cheerfulness and devotion in their promise of service, yet went beyond the parameters of such cultural mythologies. The second focuses on the gendering of military heroism. The third theme addresses the context of female military service in terms of the preparation women received, the opportunities they were given and the risks they took, and focuses on their coping behaviours. Theme four focuses specifically on women's transgression into the masculine terrain of driving and mechanics and shares the ways they developed skills and competencies previously off-limits for women. Such transgressions almost invariably led to women having to negotiate masculine authority and develop skills in autonomy, independence and assertiveness - the focus of theme five. The last two themes discussed in the book address the integration and consolidation of women's organizations as the war progressed and their service became indispensable.

The body of the hero in the early nineteenth century
Julia Banister

of letters William Jerdan defended Paget’s lieutenancy of Ireland on the basis that he had been ‘one of the brightest military heroes of our age’.13 In his life as a politician – a life that saw him come under attack for his sympathy for, among other things, Catholic emancipation – Paget acted, so the Gentleman’s Magazine obituary asserts, ‘with a moral courage not inferior to his brilliant physical bravery in the field’.14 Linda Colley has argued that the final battle of the Napoleonic Wars popularised ‘a cult of military heroism and of a particular brand of

in Martial masculinities
Heather Streets

soldiers who, by their loyalty and bravery, came to be fêted above all others as representatives of collective military heroism: Highland Scots, Punjabi Sikhs and Nepalese Gurkhas. Stories that celebrated their valour, ferocity and gallantry articulated new connections between British soldiers and the most loyal Indian soldiers, and between military service in the Empire, ideal masculinity and racial

in Martial races
Edward James

This chapter discusses the articles by Walter Goffart which allege that Gregory of Tours’ Histories show that the early Franks had no concept of military heroism. The evidence for the existence of heroic songs and traditions is examined, as well as admiration for military prowess, particularly in the near-contemporary military history of Prokopios. The criticisms of Walter Goffart’s views in Laury Sarti’s Perceiving war are discussed. The chapter concludes by suggesting that the absence of heroic military virtues in Gregory is deliberate and significant. His religious aim is to show the worthlessness of military virtues, because he wants to show that spiritual heroism is what matters. Gregory’s descriptions of warfare are all part of his attempts to show that true worth only comes through the Church and through following the teachings of Christ.

in Early medieval militarisation
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‘reproofe to these degenerate effeminate dayes?
Carol Banks

-examine old-fashioned military heroism in a society in which attitudes to masculinity were evidently changing. None the less, in staging military heroism it is not only the valiant heroes but also those warlike heroines of the medieval past who, in Shakespeare’s ‘Histories’, provide ‘reproofe’ to the ‘effeminate dayes’ of late Elizabethan England

in Shakespeare’s histories and counter-histories
Accessible knightly masculinities in children’s Arthuriana, 1903–11
Elly McCausland

an adventure has to possess shining armour and clashing steel and beautiful, useless Burne-Jones ladies in order to be an adventure, then we have not the material at hand’.4 During the early twentieth century, the relevance of a medieval value system rooted in skill with sword and shield came under particular scrutiny within the burgeoning industry of children’s literature, which often presented heroic stories as exemplary for young readers. Concurrently, scouting movements in Britain and America sought to translate military heroism into qualities that could be

in Martial masculinities
Byron’s Scottish identity in Italy
Jonathan Gross

, air-​guns, stilettos, swords, lances and pitchforks during his years in Italy, he would have had Scott’s history of warfare firmly in mind since he ordered Scott’s novel from Murray. And military heroism lies at the heart of Byron’s sense of Scottishness while in Italy. ‘Lowlanders were as constantly engaged in war as the mountaineers, and were incomparably better disciplined and armed’, Scott writes, while the favourite Scottish order of battle somewhat resembled the Macedonian phalanx. Their infantry formed a compact body, armed with long spears, impenetrable even

in Byron and Italy
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Charlotte Yonge and the ‘martial ardour’ of ‘a soldier’s daughter’
Susan Walton

as men and boys, because everyone needs to soldier on as a participant in the battlefield of life. Through all her writings, she provided subtle illustrations of how to acquire these characteristics, assuming that it was possible to assimilate such attitudes through reading stories and by mentally rehearsing how to react courageously when confronted with both physical and moral challenges. A typical example of Yonge’s belief that stories of military heroism equip us for such situations in civilian life occurs in Scenes and Characters (1847), a novel about the Mohun

in Martial masculinities
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Janet Lee

military heroism. It explores women’s participation in the dangers of war and the creation of feminine stories of personal heroism that aligned women alongside male combatants, thus marking their place as participants in the war. The third theme addresses the context of female military service in terms of the preparation women received, the opportunities they were given and the risks they took, and focuses on their coping behaviours. Although such coping behaviour was grounded in traditional femininity, it allowed women opportunities to push against the boundaries of

in War girls
Stephanie Barczewski

a larger-scale form of celebrating Keppel’s vindication; it serves as a reminder that the celebration of naval and military heroism was not always directed in support of the current government or established authorities, for the public support for Keppel reflected growing disillusionment with the war effort in America. 34 Keppel was recast from an aging, timid commander into a stalwart foe of corruption and incompetence, in

in Country houses and the British Empire, 1700–1930