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The environmental history of war and militarization in Modern France
Author: Chris Pearson

This book traces the creation, maintenance, and contestation of the militarized environments from the establishment of France's first large-scale and permanent army camp on the Champagne plains in 1857, to military environmentalism in the first decade of the twenty-first century. In doing so, it focuses on the evolving and profoundly historical relationship between war, militarization, and the environment. The book treats militarized environments as simultaneously material and cultural sites that have been partially or fully mobilized to achieve military aims. It focuses on the environmental history of sites in rural and metropolitan France that the French and other militaries have directly mobilized to prepare for, and to wage, war. They include such sites as army camps, weapons testing facilities, and air bases, as well as battlefields and other combat zones, but not maritime militarized environments, which arguably deserve their own book. First World War cemeteries and the memorial landscapes of the D-Day beaches remain places of international importance and serve as reminders of the transnational character of many French militarized environments. And although the book focuses on the environmental history of militaraization within metropolitan France, it speaks to issues that mark militarized environments across the globe, such as civilian displacement, anti-base protests, and military environmentalism. By focusing on the French case, the author aims to encourage reflection and discussion on the global issue of military control and use of the environment.

Hakim Khaldi

hostage-taking and assassination of foreigners) and the generalised insecurity (an increasing number of kidnappings of foreigners by different groups), the Turkish government withdrew authorisation for international staff to cross the border into Idlib. The North-East under the Control of the PYD, Syrian Branch of the PKK In 2012, military control of part of the border zone with Turkey was outsourced by Damascus to the Syrian branch

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Troop levies from the counties
Neil Younger

of the war, but steps in the direction of a real integration between military demand, industrial supply and government finance. THE COUNTIES AND THE MILITARY AUTHORITIES The last stage of the counties’ job in troop levies was to hand over the recruits to military authorities. This was one of the most problematic stages of the process; recruits could be closely supervised while they remained in their home counties, and again while under military control in the field, but in between, once mustered in the county in readiness to leave, or as they marched to the port

in War and politics in the Elizabethan counties
William Butler

) united goal in home defence, when faced with a very immediate threat for the duration of the war. The issue of civilian or military control over the UHG is an important political element in relation to the discipline and morale of the force. This situation had a number of separate consequences for those members of the B Specials on the one hand, and those of only the UHG on the other. For the Special Constables it meant that a declaration had to be signed, which made a member liable to serve under military control should an emergency arise and, therefore, subject to

in The Irish amateur military tradition in the British Army, 1854–1992
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The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

Transnational resistance in Europe, 1936–48
Editors: Robert Gildea and Ismee Tames

This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.

Charles Smith

but to use force. If trouble should reappear, martial law should be introduced under full military control. ‘We are under no illusions as to what this means,’ continued Peel. ‘Innocent people may be sacrificed whilst the guilty escape.’ Peel recommended the provision of barrack accommodation for every Palestinian police officer, to isolate him from nationalist influences, and the formation of a large

in Policing and decolonisation
Allison Drew

dwellers of the bled es siba (lands of dissidence) whom the Turkish military controlled with difficulty. By 1830 the Ottoman regency in Algiers was wracked with infighting, and European financiers dominated the local economy. The French state, in the final days of the Bourbon restoration monarchy, took full advantage. 1 The fall of Algiers in 1830 was heralded by the looting of

in We are no longer in France
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Chris Pearson

The relative concealment of Canjuers Camp within the surrounding countryside is hardly surprising since the French military has repeatedly tried to hide its installations from view (using, for instance, trees as screens). When concealment has not been possible, the military has made it very clear to civilians that they are barred from militarized environments through the use of barbed wire, fences, checkpoints and 2 Introduction ‘keep out’ signs. In democratic societies it is vital to examine critically the often secretive military control and ownership of land

in Mobilizing nature
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James McDermott

certificates, increasingly refused to accept a passive role in processing unsuitable men. Countrywide, similar resistance to the existing system led to its abolition in 1917, following which the medical examination process was removed entirely from military control. McDermott_MilitaryTribunals.indd 6 04/03/2011 14:00 Introduction 7 Similarly, the option of requiring exempted men to drill with the Volunteer Training Corps, urged by the War Office, made unrealistic demands upon men working long hours in important industries and excited local tensions as widespread evasion

in British Military Service Tribunals, 1916–1918