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The military in British art, 1815-1914

In an age when engraving and photography were making artistic images available to a much wider public, artists were able to influence public attitudes more powerfully than ever before. This book examines works of art on military themes in relation to ruling-class ideologies about the army, war and the empire. The first part of the book is devoted to a chronological survey of battle painting, integrated with a study of contemporary military and political history. The chapters link the debate over the status and importance of battle painting to contemporary debates over the role of the army and its function at home and abroad. The second part discusses the intersection of ideologies about the army and military art, but is concerned with an examination of genre representations of soldiers. Another important theme which runs through the book is the relation of English to French military art. During the first eighty years of the period under review France was the cynosure of military artists, the school against which British critics measured their own, and the place from which innovations were imported and modified. In every generation after Waterloo battle painters visited France and often trained there. The book shows that military art, or the 'absence' of it, was one of the ways in which nationalist commentators articulated Britain's moral superiority. The final theme which underlies much of the book is the shifts which took place in the perception of heroes and hero-worship.

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J.W.M. Hichberger

‘decent’ working-class men. It will be argued that the relationship of the army to the state, and the ideologies underpinning and surrounding it, may be shown to have had a significant relation with works of art on military themes exhibited at the Royal Academy. The nature of this link is by no means a straightforward one in which the picture unproblematically reflects the ideologies of the ruling class

in Images of the army
Philip M. Taylor

. He used conspiracies against the state to strengthen his position (sometimes invented for the purpose), and elections to demonstrate his popularity. In short, from rigorous censorship to positive image projection and black propaganda, Napoleon was a master, one of the greatest propagandists in history. An essential ingredient of Napoleon’s power was his cultivated image of the soldier-emperor. While national festivals and public ceremonies continued to abound, they now came to be dominated by the military theme as Napoleon turned France into a militarized state. As

in Munitions of the Mind
An epilogue
Joanne Begiato

protective, heroic, masculine qualities. Their female lovers on the home front are shown saving them by helping them build emotional resilience: a neat trade-off of masculine vulnerability for female agency.26 The damaged nature of martial masculinities is also The measure of a man: an epilogue materialised in art. Two particularly evocative examples can be seen in the works of Joyce Cairns and Chris McHugh. Cairns has produced a body of work responding to military themes in ‘War Tourist’, which uses artefacts related to conflict to create her ‘memory paintings’. The

in Manliness in Britain, 1760–1900
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Charlotte Yonge and the ‘martial ardour’ of ‘a soldier’s daughter’
Susan Walton

the enterprise. It is not the independent-minded, ‘modern’ Rachel but the motherly Lady Fanny Temple, a widow of a general, who • 171 • Imagining martial masculinities shows the required initiative and courage to rescue the young girls from this sweat-shop.49 Typically, Yonge entitles the chapter in which Fanny liberates the children ‘The Forlorn Hope’, a military term for a small group of soldiers who volunteer to lead a hazardous assault, while the previous chapter was ‘The Siege’. Military themes permeated Yonge’s writings – her contemporary domestic fiction

in Martial masculinities
Norman Etherington

Caractacus , a large choral work completed the following year. The march is short (less than five minutes), but it strikes attitudes characteristic of all his subsequent marches. An opening drum roll announces a stately military theme marked pomposo , which soon gives way a brassy animato call to arms. The two military themes gradually intermingle and reach a stirring climax. Suddenly the key shifts

in Imperium of the soul
Richard Farmer

if so what we ought to do. The thing to do once inside the cinema is to forget the war and settle down to enjoy the picture.18 Here, one has to make the decision to forget the war; pleasure is not given but, rather, has to be taken, and its provision is reliant on the will power and single-mindedness of the individual: escape did not simply happen, it had to be made to happen. The films being screened often determined the extent to which escape was deemed to be possible, and those that contained military themes and content were held by some to remind viewers of

in Cinemas and cinemagoing in wartime Britain, 1939–45
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Martial manliness and material culture
Joanne Begiato

, Jack seeks help from his employer’s wife on Christmas Eve. She enables him to purchase a small second-hand boat, which he lovingly improves with paint, and she also provides gifts of food and money for the ­poverty-stricken family. In this generic sentimental tale of middle-class seasonal charity, the working-class boy earns benevolence through his kindness and knowing his place. Yet it hints at the power of the martial ideal; in this court, says the author, everybody ‘was in heart “a true-born sailor”’.52 Popular depictions of boys at play often had a military theme

in Manliness in Britain, 1760–1900
J.W.M. Hichberger

T. H. Ward, p. 213. 33 Spiers, p. 27. 34 This statistical evidence was compiled in the doctoral thesis by this author, ‘Military Themes in British Painting, 1815–1914′, University of London, 1985, see Graph A

in Images of the army
J.W.M. Hichberger

an institution. Notes 1 The statistical basis of these and all other figures in this book is to be found in J. W. M. Hichberger, ‘Military Themes in British Painting, 1815–1914’, Ph. D. thesis, University of London, 1985. 2

in Images of the army