The extreme profitability of Mel Gibson’s The Passion of the Christ in 2004 came
as a great surprise to the Hollywood establishment, particularly considering its
failure to find production funding through a major studio. Since then the
biblical epic, long thought dead in terms of widespread marketability, has
become a viable product. These screen texts, primarily film and television
features adapting stories from both the Old and New Testaments, have seen
production both inside and outside of Hollywood. Seeking both profits and
critical acclaim, as well as providing outlets for auteurist ‘passion projects’
such as Gibson’s film, Darren Aronofsky’s Noah (2014) and Ridley Scott’s Exodus:
Gods and Kings (2014), these texts both follow previous biblical epic
traditions, as well as appear distinct stylistically and thematically from the
biblical epic in its prime. With 2018 seeing the highly publicised release of
Mary Magdalene, an attempt at a feminist take on this controversial figure, as
well as Gibson’s announcement that he is in production on a follow-up to The
Passion of the Christ, there is no clear evidence that the steady production of
biblical media will abate anytime soon. Therefore, academic consideration of the
modern biblical epic is both timely and highly relevant. With contributions from
scholars such as Mikel J. Koven, Andrew B. R. Elliott and Martin Stollery, and a
preface from Adele Reinhartz, this collection aims to be a starting point for
initiating this discourse.
Turkey's involvement in the Gulf War in 1991 paved the way for the country's acceptance into the European Union. This book traces that process, and in the first part looks at Turkey's foreign policy in the 1990s, considering the ability of the country to withstand the repercussions of the fall of communism. It focuses on Turkey's achievement in halting and minimising the effects of the temporary devaluation in its strategic importance that resulted from the waning of the Cold War and the disintegration of the Soviet Union; the skilful way in which Turkey avoided becoming embroiled in the ethnic upheavals in Central Asia, the Balkans and the Middle East; and the development of a continued policy of closer integration into the European and western worlds. Internal politics are the focus of the second part of the book, addressing the curbing of the Kurdish revolt, the economic gains made and the strengthening of civil society. The book goes on to analyse the prospects for Turkey in the twenty-first century, in the light of the possible integration into Europe, which may leave the country's leadership free to deal effectively with domestic issues.
millennium, is trickier and under-defined. The stories may share general similarities, which engage in the use and deconstruction of generic iconography, but it could be argued that such texts are stylistically different, even taking into account these similarities. That said, there is an awareness of generic constants in the classical Hollywood biblical film and in order to deconstruct these tropes, there still needs to be an adherence to generic structures. However, this is a debate which can be undertaken anew with the modern biblical epic.
Whether these modern
The turn of a new millennium
Siéntele el pulso oscuro a lo que escribes.
Son puentes las palabras. Por debajo
pasa, secreto, un clamoroso río.
Asómate. ¿Te ves en la corriente?
¿Cuándo ha sido más vivo tu reflejo,
si no es en esa eterna sucesión
de impetuosas aguas que te llevan?
¿Acaso en el papel de alguna foto
en la que amarilleas siempre inmóvil?
¿Sobre la plana, y casi metafísica,
superficie de algún espejo
The first years of the new millennium provide an opportunity for
assessing how beur filmmaking has developed since the flourishing of the
banlieue film in 1995 and the surprise success of Djamel Bensalah’s
Le Ciel , les oiseaux … et ta mère in 1999. Since
2000, there has been an increase in the number of beur filmmakers –
Kamel Saleh, Karim Abbou (born in 1968 in Puteaux), Kader Ayd (born in 1976 in
Nanterre), Rabah Ameur
that, to a certain extent, helped to boost the dissemination and reach of
poetry in society. Also, the prevailing commonsensical poetry that aimed
to illustrate the normality of modern and democratic life in the 1990s
would create a canon that future generations, despite moving away from
literary controversies, would still partly follow.
The turn of a new millennium (late 1990s–2005)
The turn of the new millennium was a key event for Spanish poetry,
and Spanish society in general. The entry to a new century and a new
millennium with all its social, historical
‘Not exactly the millennium’
The minimum wage campaign1
By June 1911, the campaign against the three-shift system was struggling in
the mire of protracted and ultimately fruitless negotiations between the DMA
executive and mine owners. Yet, by March 1912, the DMA had played an essential
part in mounting the largest strike in British history hitherto, in favour of an
individual minimum wage for all miners. Under the auspices of the MFGB, over
one million coal miners struck, in the Federation’s first truly national industrial
action. As the failed 1893 miners
increase – though modest – of 1.5 to 2.5 percent in the Turkish economy, plus an inflation rate of “only” 40 to 50 percents (lower than the 67 percent of 1999). As already noted, the Turkish economic turmoil of winter 2000/2001 – some described it as a catastrophe – and the implications of the global economic slowdown, have pushed the Turkish economy backwards. 77
The beginning of the new millennium has not brought good news for Turkey’s economy. The implications of the country’s economic crisis could have a detrimental effect, both internally and
murderers, rapists and thieves.” 15 The celebrated Greek author, Nikos Kazantzakis, swore that for the Greeks freedom means purging themselves of the corrupt Turkish traits acquired under Ottoman rule. 16 The Greek Consul in Montreal took umbrage at a series of lectures held in a local university entitled: “Turkey: Two Millenniums of Art and History,” protesting that the Turkish nation “had settled in the region much later” and that most of the discoveries cited were a part of the Greek cultural heritage. 17
Pangalos’s sacking in February 1999
Caspian Sea Mineral Resources: Conflicting Perceptions, Clashing Interests,” Europe-Asia Studies , Vol. 50, No. 3, 1998, p. 403; Greek Ministry of Press and Mass Media, Secretariat General Information, Greece: Your Strategic Partner in the New Millennium , Athens, Ministry of Press and Mass Media, 1999, p. 64.
12 Yucel Guclu, “Regulation of the Passage through the Turkish Straits,” Perceptions , Vol. 6, No. 1, March–May 2001, p. 128; Turkish Probe , 30 November 1997; Turkistan Newsletter , Vol. 98:2–012, 22 January 1998