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Andrew Holmes

This article examines Presbyterian interpretations in Scotland and Ireland of the Scottish Reformations of 1560 and 1638–43. It begins with a discussion of the work of two important Presbyterian historians of the early nineteenth century, the Scotsman, Thomas McCrie, and the Irishman, James Seaton Reid. In their various publications, both laid the template for the nineteenth-century Presbyterian understanding of the Scottish Reformations by emphasizing the historical links between the Scottish and Irish churches in the early-modern period and their common theology and commitment to civil and religious liberty against the ecclesiastical and political tyranny of the Stuarts. The article also examines the commemorations of the National Covenant in 1838, the Solemn League and Covenant in 1843, and the Scottish Reformation in 1860. By doing so, it uncovers important religious and ideological linkages across the North Channel, including Presbyterian evangelicalism, missionary activity, church–state relationships, religious reform and revival, and anti-Catholicism.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Imperial Fantasies for a Post-Colonial World
William Hughes

In an age of Imperial confidence, the social rhetoric of Victorian Britain frequently manifested a perceptible unease when considering cultural problems within the home nation. The imagery of ‘darkest England’, dependant as it was upon a powerful colonialist discourse, authorised and transmitted a register of language whereby an internal Other might be configured as uncivilised, and thus capable of being subject to the explorer and the missionary. Much, of course, has already been written upon the Gothic possibilities of this phenomena which characterised an Imperial age which allegedly declined with the nineteenth century. No similar consideration, however, has yet been made of its continuation into the twentieth century, a progressively post-colonial era in which the Imperial (or Imperialised) Other, in consequence, functions differently. This article considers two Gothic short stories, one in a reprinted Edwardian collection, the other a component of an original collection, both of which were issued in volume form in the late 1940s. The two narratives examine classic ‘cultures-within-cultures’, pockets of resistance within the fabric of the Imperial nation, though in a cultural context radically different from their Victorian predecessors. Algernon Blackwood‘s ‘Ancient Sorceries’ (1908), published in the 1947 reprint of his John Silence, and L.T.C. Rolt‘s ‘Cwm Garon’ published in Sleep No More (1948) share a preoccupation with the casual, localised, travelling which has replaced Imperial adventure, and with the decline of identifiable Christian institutions and landmarks themselves the products of earlier missionary activity in a familiar, though threatening, European landscape. In both short stories a form of devil worship is enacted before the eyes of the traveller, and in a landscape which fascinates and somehow holds him. In ‘Ancient Sorceries’, where the Devil does attend the bacchanal, the protagonist is almost seduced into willing participation but, on evading the sexual lure of the sabbat, vows never to return. Rolt, writing after the recent horrors of the Second World War, discards the presiding Devil in favour of a mortal substitute, but still leaves open the possibility that, in Kilvert‘s words, ‘an angel satyr walks these hills’. Neither welcomed nor seduced by the satanic community, Rolts protagonist finds himself fascinated by the land, and thus drawn into unwilling participation. In colonial terms, these two narratives explore the frequently rehearsed dangers of ‘going native’ that lie at the core of, among other works, Kipling‘s ‘The Mark of the Beast’, Rider Haggard‘s She and Conrad‘s Heart of Darkness. A subject people is identified, but their strength either supernatural or merely cultural, the ability to preserve a distinctive and resistant way of life tests the limits of the perceiving power. These are, in a sense, Imperial fantasies for a post-colonial world, a reflexing of colonised culture back in upon the formerly colonising nation.

Gothic Studies
Resilience and the Language of Compassion
Diego I. Meza

governments considered authoritarian, in addition to providing aid and support in the various peace processes. Humanitarianism has been characterised by the preaching of ‘impartiality, neutrality and independence’ ( Ferris, 2011 : 11). These maxims are based on the idea that ‘politics is a moral polluter’ ( Barnett and Weiss, 2008 : 4). However, the fact that the funding, profile and structure of these institutions come from the Global North is seen as ‘a mutation of colonial power and an extension of religious missionary activity in a new form’ ( Benthall and Bellion

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Images of Africa and Asia in British advertising

We live in an age in which advertising is part of the fabric of our lives. Advertising in its modern form largely has its origins in the later nineteenth century. This book is the first to provide a historical survey of images of black people in advertising during the colonial period. It highlights the way in which racist representations continually developed and shifted throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, depending on the particular political and economic interests of the producers of these images. The book analyses the various conflicting, and changing ideologies of colonialism and racism in British advertising, revealing reveal the purposes to which these images of dehumanisation and exploitation were employed. The first part deals with images of Africa, the second deals with images of black people in the West, and the third considers questions relating to issues about images and social representations in general. The Eurocentric image of the 'savage' and 'heathen', the period of slavery, European exploration and missionary activity, as well as the colonisation of Africa in the nineteenth century are explored. Representations of the servant, the entertainer, and the exotic man or woman with a rampant sexuality are also presented. The key strategy with which images of black people from the colonial period have been considered is that of stereotyping. The material interests of soap manufacturers, cocoa manufacturers, tea advertising, and tobacco advertising are discussed. The book explains the four particular types of imagery dominate corporate advertising during the 1950s and early 1960s.

Reflections on the emergence of the ‘Schwertmission’ in the early Middle Ages
Uta Heil

the Great (590–604) are of particular relevance. 26 Gregory is often referred to as an important supporter of militant missionary activities in modern secondary literature. Hans-Dietrich Kahl, for example, the author of an often-cited reference work, wrote: The marked general line of development, which shows the use of military means in mission work outside the Church as a post-ancient apparition, corresponds to the fact that Augustine is not yet

in Early medieval militarisation
John McAleer

their respective vocabularies of engagement with non-European spaces. The historiographies of British imperialism and British overseas missionary activity, for example, have frequently followed parallel paths. Nineteenth-century missionary organisations employed the terminology of benevolence, progress and improvement that also appeared regularly in official discourse. Nevertheless, this should not

in Representing Africa
Abstract only
John McAleer

purport to be an encyclopaedic account of missionary activity or British colonial policy in the region, nor is it an attempt to synthesise the history of scientific exploration and endeavour in Africa. It concentrates on the biographies of individual travellers and writers only in so far as they illuminate the broader narrative. Instead, this study is an examination of the representation of the varied

in Representing Africa
Between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Letters
Aurélien Girard
Giovanni Pizzorusso

Propaganda Fide, the Patriarch Yūh. anna Mahluf wrote several times to the cardinals urging ˘ them to exclude the Jesuits from the college.20 In 1622, Pope Gregory XV created the Congregation of Propaganda Fide, a ministry of the Roman curia charged with the jurisdiction of missionary ­activities in non-Catholic jurisdictions. Accordingly Propaganda assumed responsibility for Catholics in Protestant jurisdictions, for Orthodox (‘scismatici’) in Muslim territories and for missionary activity in pagan territories generally. Only the conversion of the Jews was excluded from

in College communities abroad
Abstract only
David Hardiman

twentieth centuries, coinciding with both the consolidation of Social Darwinist theory and missionary activity. Indeed, it may be argued that missionaries had prepared the ground for the wider reception of Social Darwinism, as from the start they had seen their task as one of ‘civilising the savage’. In their widely circulated writings, they always made a point of emphasising the ‘primitivism’ of the

in Missionaries and their medicine
Anandi Ramamurthy

the ‘savage’ and ‘heathen’, the period of slavery, European exploration and missionary activity, as well as the colonisation of Africa in the nineteenth century. The last two chapters in this section break from the historical approach and look at the themes of apartheid and boys’ adventure stories. While slavery and abolitionism are dealt with in this section, the images discussed do not strictly

in Imperial persuaders