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Author: Lucy Bland

This book recounts the little-known history of the mixed-race children born to black American servicemen and white British women during the Second World War. Of the three million American soldiers stationed in Britain from 1942 to 1945, about 8 per cent (240,000) were African-American; the latter’s relationships with British women resulted in the birth of an estimated 2,000 babies. The African-American press named these children ‘brown babies’; the British called them ‘half-castes’. Black GIs, in this segregated army, were forbidden to marry their white girlfriends. Up to half of the mothers of these babies, faced with the stigma of illegitimacy and a mixed-race child, gave their children up for adoption. The outcome for these children tended to be long-term residency in children’s homes, sometimes followed by fostering and occasionally adoption, but adoption societies frequently would not take on ‘coloured’ children, who were thought to be ‘too hard to place’. There has been minimal study of these children and the difficulties they faced, such as racism in a (then) very white Britain, lack of family or a clear identity. Accessibly written and illustrated with numerous photographs, this book presents the stories of over forty of these children. While some of the accounts of early childhood are heart-breaking, there are also many uplifting narratives of finding American fathers and gaining a sense of self and of heritage.

Race and the art of Agostino Brunias
Author: Mia L. Bagneris

Agostino Brunias's paintings have often been understood as straightforward documents of visual ethnography that functioned as field guides for reading race. This book offers the first comprehensive study of Agostino Brunias's intriguing pictures of colonial West Indians of colour made for colonial officials and plantocratic elites during the late-eighteenth century. It talks about the so called 'Red' and 'Black' Caribs, dark-skinned Africans and Afro-Creoles, and mixed-race women and men. The book explores the role of the artist's paintings in reifying notions of race in the British colonial Caribbean and considers how the images both reflected and refracted common ideas about race. Although some historians argue that the conclusion of the First Carib War actually amounted to a stalemate, Brunias clearly documents it as a moment of surrender, with Joseph Chatoyer considering the terms of his people's submission. Young's Account of the Black Charaibs mobilised subtle and not-so-subtle allusions to the rebellion in Haiti to construct a narrative of the Carib Wars. The book analyses the imaging of Africans and Afro-Creoles in British colonial art. The painting named Mulatresses and Negro Woman Bathing, Brunias replaces his more quotidian trade scenes and negro dancing frolics with a bathing tableau set against a sylvan Eden. In Linen Market, Dominica, one arresting figure captivates the viewer more than any other. Brunias may have painted for the plantocractic class, constructing pretty pictures of Caribbean life that reflected the vision of the islands upon which white, colonialist identities depended.

Mixed-race Venuses and Vixens as the fruits of imperial enterprise
Mia L. Bagneris

3 Brown-skinned booty, or colonising Diana: mixed-race Venuses and Vixens as the fruits of imperial enterprise Housed in the storage tombs of Harvard University’s Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography is one of Agostino Brunias’s more fascinating pictures. The intimately scaled painting features four nude women seeking refuge from the steamy heat of the Caribbean, bathing in a shallow stream under the canopy of an abundant tree. In many ways a rather conventional bathing image, this depiction of a ubiquitous theme of Western art by a painter of little

in Colouring the Caribbean
Douglas J. Hamilton

assess quantitatively the scale of Scottish involvement in miscegenation, it is less difficult to determine the ways in which Scots reacted to fathering illegitimate mixed-race children. The location The term ‘West Indies’ implies a coherence and uniformity among a number of British-owned islands located in the Caribbean Sea. The islands were geographically scattered, however, and

in Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic world 1750–1820
From L’Honneur de ma famille to Drôle de Félix
Carrie Tarr

Vincent engages with a multi-ethnic group of marginalised men and women; and Drôle de Félix by Olivier Ducastel and Jacques Martineau introduces a different perspective on ethnicity by centring on a young mixed-race, gay man with AIDS. The representation of immigrants of Maghrebi origin in places other than the more conventional cinematic spaces of the city centre or rundown working-class banlieues raises the question as to whether alternative

in Reframing difference
Childhood visits to Ireland by the second generation in England
Bronwen Walter

want to relax. Nevertheless childhood holidays in Ireland was the topic discussed at greatest length by focus group members, usually strangers brought together for the first time. They exchanged anecdotes animatedly and welcomed the unusual 3995 Migrations.qxd:text 24 5/8/13 11:38 Page 24 N ETWORKS experience of finding people in England outside their families with whom to have such conversations (Walter et al., 2002: 213). Mixed heritage Second-generation Irish people with ‘mixed race’ heritages have very different childhood memories of visiting Ireland

in Migrations
Benjamin B. Cohen

, but, again, was not a member and thus not able to vote. The mixed-race club, in contrast, approached the issue of race in a very different way. Indians and liberal-minded Britons formed such clubs and intentionally mixed the participation of each group in the club’s operation. These mixed-race clubs sometimes were established precisely for ‘social intercourse’ between the two communities. In some clubs

in In the club
Christy Kulz

too reminiscent of the well-meaning white missionaries of yesteryear dispatched to the colonies to show them the Christian way. Yet, as previously mentioned, Culford is not white, but mixed race. Nor is he leading a Christian organisation; however he effectively synthesises the masculine action hero with religious and militaristic overtones to create a powerful message. His position highlights the elasticity of race and class, advantageously employed to claim authenticity within certain contexts without implying a progressive political position, despite numerous

in Factories for learning
Arthur Nortje’s poems set in London
Andrea Thorpe

reconfigure and renegotiate his own position as a ‘coloured’, ‘exiled’ South African writer. London, through its literary associations as an embodiment of modernity, allows Nortje to create a nexus between physical displacement from South Africa, his ambivalence about his mixed-race origins, and the psychological and social alienation intrinsic to late twentieth-century life. In Nortje's London-based poetry, he depicts his attempts to work out his identity and his positionality and national or cultural belonging via his engagement with the city through his body. Ralph

in South African London
Abstract only
Orphanhood, kinship, and cultural memory in contemporary American novels

Making Home explores the orphan child as a trope in contemporary US fiction, arguing that in times of perceived national crisis concerns about American identity, family, and literary history are articulated around this literary figure. The book focuses on orphan figures in a broad, multi-ethnic range of contemporary fiction by Barbara Kingsolver, Linda Hogan, Leslie Marmon Silko, Marilynne Robinson, Michael Cunningham, Jonathan Safran Foer, John Irving, Kaye Gibbons, Octavia Butler, Jewelle Gomez, and Toni Morrison. It also investigates genres as carriers of cultural memory, looking particularly at the captivity narrative, historical fiction, speculative fiction, the sentimental novel, and the bildungsroman. From a decisively literary perspective, Making Home engages socio-political concerns such as mixed-race families, child welfare, multiculturalism, and racial and national identity, as well as shifting definitions of familial, national, and literary home. By analyzing how contemporary novels both incorporate and resist gendered and raced literary conventions, how they elaborate on symbolic and factual meanings of orphanhood, and how they explore kinship beyond the nuclear and/or adoptive family, this book offers something distinctly new in American literary studies. It is a crucial study for students and scholars interested in the links between literature and identity, questions of inclusion and exclusion in national ideology, and definitions of family and childhood.