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A spirited exchange 1760-1960
Editor: Avril Horner

The essays in this book demonstrate the importance of translation and European writing in the development of the Gothic novel. Cross-cultural exchanges occurred with the translation of novels by English writers into French. The book first situates works by British writers and American writers within a European context and legacy. Next, it offers readings of less-known works by Gothic authors. The book introduces the reader to a range of neglected, albeit influential, European Gothic texts which originated in Russian, Spanish, French and German. It argues that the level of ideological manipulation, which occurred as texts were translated, mistranslated, appropriated, misappropriated, altered and adapted from one language to another, was so considerable and so systematic that generic mutations were occasioned. The book suggests that Matthew Lewis's The Monk offers a few models of femininity, all deriving from and intended to disrupt, previous literary representations. It focuses on the automatic and the systematic in Charles Maturin's work in relation to Denis Diderot's contemporary philosophical conceptualizations of consciousness and identity. Gothic treacheries are dealt with through Samuel Coleridge's analysis of misappropriation of Friedrich Schiller's Die Rauber. The book also discusses the representations of ritual violence, as sanctioned by the Catholic Church, in English and Spanish pictorial and literary texts between 1796 and 1834. It talks about the Arabesque narrative technique of embedding tales within tales to create a maze in which even the storyteller becomes lost, reflecting the Eastern notion that the created is more important than the creator.

Matthew Lewis’s The Monk and the Marquis de Sade’s La Nouvelle Justine

novel, wronged because of their unwitting similarities to the Virgin Mary. In all, The Monk offers three core models of femininity that are both indebted to previous literary representations and intended to disrupt them. The first, Antonia, is a clear embodiment of previous literary representations drawn from, amongst others, Diderot, de Sade and Radcliffe. The second model, Agnes, who like

in European Gothic
Open Access (free)
Jane Eyre in Elizabeth Stoddard’s New England

, and their modes of dealing with the fulfilment of their erotic nature. I will also show the ways in which the transatlantic borrowings of Elizabeth Stoddard create a rich and unnerving novel that refuses to embrace conventional models of femininity. Stoddard’s use of British and American Gothic traditions and her engagement with Jane Eyre result in an extraordinarily candid and surprising novel, which still resonates with readers today. The trope of the castle in romantic Gothic, and of the house in provincial Gothic, is used to symbolise the confinement and

in Special relationships
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consumers, and as the recipients of gifts in heterosexual courtship. These limited modes of feminine consumption tended to reinforce the prescribed roles of girlfriend, wife, housewife and mother. In the later twentieth century these gendered images were modernised to keep up with social change, but the emphasis on hegemonic models of femininity and masculinity continued. Intertwined with tropes of

in Chocolate, women and empire

well as appearing in the periodical press.62 Yet, unlike earlier models of femininity that were theoretically applicable to all women, if complicated by rank, the modern woman was an ideal only achievable by the elites. e stadial model for history argued that humanity progressed through stages of development from the savage to the modern. Commercial and industrial progress had allowed the elite classes in Britain to leave behind their unenlightened past, but this was not true of everyone. e non-European world was understood to be several steps behind, justifying

in Love, intimacy and power
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Rethinking patriarchy

marital relationships as much as other areas of life. Others, particularly early modern historians who were uncomfortable with claims that love, intimacy and co-operation between spouses were novel to the period, preferred to emphasise continuity with the past.1 Within Scotland, the answer is somewhere in between. New models of femininity and masculinity, the increasing importance of individualism, the influence of Enlightenment philosophy, the rise of commercial society and the expansion of the public sphere, all operated to shape new ways of thinking about and

in Love, intimacy and power

exacerbated version of the sad princess, she may either find herself in a position of helplessness close to obliteration, often held captive by a ruthless tyrant who threatens to rape her, or she may fall prey to some terrifying creature who keeps her in a state of extreme peril; regardless, she invites deliverance, following a model of femininity that may be read as a mere vehicle for the deployment of heroic masculinity. In The Book of Thel

in William Blake's Gothic imagination

groups like the Young Christian Workers in the 1950s and being taught to engage with the secular world in Christian ways through the motto ‘See Judge Act’. 81 Historian Alana Harris suggests that young women were offered an alternative to the conservative model of femininity, one that advocated an equal discipleship along with ‘emotional maturity, self-expression and intellectual independence’. 82 As discussed earlier and below, young Catholic women were likely to question and exercise their critical faculties. Dominican Conrad Peplar, in his introduction to the

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
Colonial encounters in Indian women’s English writings in late nineteenth-century western India

did educated Indian women who also happened to be Christian converts perceive the issue of conversion, westernisation and female schooling? In what ways were issues such as the ‘civilising mission’, western models of femininity, companionate marriage and ‘colonial modernity’ received by educated Indian women? Were they merely passive recipients of the ‘fruits’ of the

in Gendered transactions
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gaining significance with age, in the context of a postwar cultural emphasis on marriage and motherhood as the ultimate goals for women. The figure of the ‘bachelor girl’ or ‘career woman’, which took on greater resonance with the expansion of female participation in the workplace, offered one possible alternative to domestic models of femininity and a number of careers did offer women the potential to express a non-heterosexual identity through their work. The recently established women’s services and police provided an environment in which women could legitimately

in Tomboys and bachelor girls