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A spirited exchange 1760-1960
Editor: Avril Horner

The essays in this book demonstrate the importance of translation and European writing in the development of the Gothic novel. Cross-cultural exchanges occurred with the translation of novels by English writers into French. The book first situates works by British writers and American writers within a European context and legacy. Next, it offers readings of less-known works by Gothic authors. The book introduces the reader to a range of neglected, albeit influential, European Gothic texts which originated in Russian, Spanish, French and German. It argues that the level of ideological manipulation, which occurred as texts were translated, mistranslated, appropriated, misappropriated, altered and adapted from one language to another, was so considerable and so systematic that generic mutations were occasioned. The book suggests that Matthew Lewis's The Monk offers a few models of femininity, all deriving from and intended to disrupt, previous literary representations. It focuses on the automatic and the systematic in Charles Maturin's work in relation to Denis Diderot's contemporary philosophical conceptualizations of consciousness and identity. Gothic treacheries are dealt with through Samuel Coleridge's analysis of misappropriation of Friedrich Schiller's Die Rauber. The book also discusses the representations of ritual violence, as sanctioned by the Catholic Church, in English and Spanish pictorial and literary texts between 1796 and 1834. It talks about the Arabesque narrative technique of embedding tales within tales to create a maze in which even the storyteller becomes lost, reflecting the Eastern notion that the created is more important than the creator.

Matthew Lewis’s The Monk and the Marquis de Sade’s La Nouvelle Justine
Angela Wright

novel, wronged because of their unwitting similarities to the Virgin Mary. In all, The Monk offers three core models of femininity that are both indebted to previous literary representations and intended to disrupt them. The first, Antonia, is a clear embodiment of previous literary representations drawn from, amongst others, Diderot, de Sade and Radcliffe. The second model, Agnes, who like

in European Gothic
Open Access (free)
Jane Eyre in Elizabeth Stoddard’s New England
Anne-Marie Ford

, and their modes of dealing with the fulfilment of their erotic nature. I will also show the ways in which the transatlantic borrowings of Elizabeth Stoddard create a rich and unnerving novel that refuses to embrace conventional models of femininity. Stoddard’s use of British and American Gothic traditions and her engagement with Jane Eyre result in an extraordinarily candid and surprising novel, which still resonates with readers today. The trope of the castle in romantic Gothic, and of the house in provincial Gothic, is used to symbolise the confinement and

in Special relationships
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Emma Robertson

consumers, and as the recipients of gifts in heterosexual courtship. These limited modes of feminine consumption tended to reinforce the prescribed roles of girlfriend, wife, housewife and mother. In the later twentieth century these gendered images were modernised to keep up with social change, but the emphasis on hegemonic models of femininity and masculinity continued. Intertwined with tropes of

in Chocolate, women and empire
Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape
Author: Janice Norwood

Victorian touring actresses: Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape provides a new perspective on the on- and offstage lives of women working in nineteenth-century theatre, and affirms the central role of touring, both within the United Kingdom and in North America and Australasia. Drawing on extensive archival research, it features a cross-section of neglected performers whose dramatic specialisms range from tragedy to burlesque. Although they were employed as stars in their own time, their contribution to the industry has largely been forgotten. The book’s innovative organisation follows a natural lifecycle, enabling a detailed examination of the practical challenges and opportunities typically encountered by the actress at each stage of her working life. Individual experiences are scrutinised to highlight the career implications of strategies adopted to cope with the demands of the profession, the physical potential of the actress’s body, and the operation of gendered power on and offstage. Analysis is situated in a wide contextual framework and reveals how reception and success depended on the performer’s response to the changing political, economic, social and cultural landscape as well as to developments in professional practice and organisation. The book concludes with discussion of the legacies of the performers, linking their experiences to the present-day situation.

Author: Zoë Thomas

Women Art Workers constitutes the first comprehensive history of the network of women who worked at the heart of the English Arts and Crafts movement from the 1870s to the 1930s. Challenging the long-standing assumption that the Arts and Crafts simply revolved around celebrated male designers like William Morris, this book instead offers a new social and cultural account of the movement, which simultaneously reveals the breadth of the imprint of women art workers upon the making of modern society. Thomas provides unprecedented insight into how women – working in fields such as woodwork, textiles, sculpture, painting, and metalwork – navigated new authoritative roles as ‘art workers’ by asserting expertise across a range of interconnected cultures so often considered in isolation: from the artistic to the professional, intellectual, entrepreneurial, and domestic. Through examination of newly discovered institutional archives and private papers, and a wide range of unstudied advertisements, letters, manuals, photographs, and calling cards, Women Art Workers elucidates the critical importance of the spaces around which women conceptualised alternative creative and professional lifestyles: guild halls, exhibitions, homes, studios, workshops, and the cityscape. Shattering the traditional periodisation of the movement as ‘Victorian’, this research reveals that the early twentieth century was a critical juncture at which women art workers became ever more confident in promoting their own vision of the Arts and Crafts. Shaped by their precarious gendered positions, they opened up the movement to a wider range of social backgrounds and interests, and redirected the movement’s radical potential into contemporary women-centred causes.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Katie Barclay

well as appearing in the periodical press.62 Yet, unlike earlier models of femininity that were theoretically applicable to all women, if complicated by rank, the modern woman was an ideal only achievable by the elites. e stadial model for history argued that humanity progressed through stages of development from the savage to the modern. Commercial and industrial progress had allowed the elite classes in Britain to leave behind their unenlightened past, but this was not true of everyone. e non-European world was understood to be several steps behind, justifying

in Love, intimacy and power
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Rethinking patriarchy
Katie Barclay

marital relationships as much as other areas of life. Others, particularly early modern historians who were uncomfortable with claims that love, intimacy and co-operation between spouses were novel to the period, preferred to emphasise continuity with the past.1 Within Scotland, the answer is somewhere in between. New models of femininity and masculinity, the increasing importance of individualism, the influence of Enlightenment philosophy, the rise of commercial society and the expansion of the public sphere, all operated to shape new ways of thinking about and

in Love, intimacy and power
Ana Elena González-Treviño

exacerbated version of the sad princess, she may either find herself in a position of helplessness close to obliteration, often held captive by a ruthless tyrant who threatens to rape her, or she may fall prey to some terrifying creature who keeps her in a state of extreme peril; regardless, she invites deliverance, following a model of femininity that may be read as a mere vehicle for the deployment of heroic masculinity. In The Book of Thel

in William Blake's Gothic imagination