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Managing madness in early nineteenth-century asylums

An archaeology of lunacy examines the historic lunatic asylum from an interdisciplinary perspective, employing methods drawn from archaeology, social geography, and history to create a holistic view of the built heritage of the asylum as a distinctive building type. In the popular imagination, historic lunatic asylums were dark, monolithic, and homogenous, instruments for social confinement and punishment. This book aims to redress this historical reputation, showing how the built environment and material worlds of lunatic asylums were distinctive and idiosyncratic – and highly regional. They were also progressive spaces and proving grounds of architectural experimentation, where the reformed treatment practices known as moral management were trialled and refined. The standing remains of the nineteenth-century lunatic asylum system represent a unique opportunity to study a building-type in active transition, both materially and ideologically. When they were constructed, asylums were a composite of reform ideals, architectural materials, and innovative design approaches. An archaeological study of these institutions can offer a materially focused examination of how the buildings worked on a daily basis. This study combines critical analysis of the architecture, material remains, and historical documentary sources for lunatic asylums in England and Ireland. Students and scholars of later historical archaeology and built heritage will find the book a useful overview of this institutional site type, while historians of medicine will find the focus on interior design and architecture of use. The general public, for whom asylums frequently represent shadowy ruins or anonymous redevelopments, may be interested in learning more about the buildings.

bureaucrats, and the imaginary futures they presented were attempts to secure consent for planning in a general sense. The manner in which local governments conceptualised and presented the notion of ‘the modern’ – through the communication of scientific planning expertise and the visual language of modern architecture – reveals a complex relationship between fantasies of progress stemming from discourses of reconstruction and the Blitz, the presentation of the war as a caesura and the development of technocratic approaches to the control and management of urban space

in Reconstructing modernity

architecture during the following decades. One of the best-known is the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925, where art, furniture, design and fashion were on display. Another influential exhibition was Weissenhofsiedlung in Stuttgart, arranged by the Deutscher Werkbund in 1927, which is considered to be the starting point for modern architecture and functionalism.53 The Stockholm Exhibition of 1930 was immensely influential and marked a breakthrough in functionalistic design and architecture.54 Like some other exhibitions

in Travelling images

Across the early decades of the seventeenth century, Englishmen and women moved through a physical, social, and mental world organised into a carefully maintained balance of motion and pause. This book examines how seventeenth-century English architectural theorists and designers rethought the domestic built environment in terms of mobility, as motion became a dominant mode of articulating the world across discourses. These discourses encompassed philosophy, political theory, poetry, and geography. From mid-century, the house and estate that had evoked staccato rhythms became triggers for mental and physical motion-evoking travel beyond England's shores, displaying vistas, and showcasing changeable wall surfaces. The book sets in its cultural context a strand of historical analysis stretching back to the nineteenth century Heinrich Wolfflin. It brings together the art, architectural, and cultural historical strands of analysis by examining why seventeenth-century viewers expected to be put in motion and what the effects were of that motion. Vistas, potentially mobile wall surface, and changeable garden provided precisely the essential distraction that rearticulated social divisions and assured the ideal harmony. Alternately feared and praised early in the century for its unsettling unpredictability, motion became the most certain way of comprehending social interactions, language, time, and the buildings that filtered human experience. At the heart of this book is the malleable sensory viewer, tacitly assumed in early modern architectural theory and history whose inescapable responsiveness to surrounding stimuli guaranteed a dependable world from the seventeenth century.

Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.

The spectacle of boxing and the geometry of tennis

attempt to reimagine the modern commodity. A demonstration of the status and social cachet of tennis in the context of modern architecture is provided by the modernist Van Nelle factory in Rotterdam, 1925–31, designed by the partnership of Brinkman and van der Vlugt, working with Mart Stam. In a report written for the board as far back as 1914, Kees van der Leeuw, the owner of the company, which sold pre-packed tea, coffee and tobacco, envisaged the new factory having ‘sports grounds’ as part of the ‘modern provision’ that would improve van Nelle’s ‘ “standing” as

in Sport and modernism in the visual arts in Europe, c. 1909–39

stadium has carried the day 41  Tony Garnier’s Stade Gerland illustrated in Sigfried Giedion, Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Concrete, 1928 151 Sport and modernism in the visual arts in Europe events unimpeded by pillars supporting the roofs of stands, but also chimed with modern architecture’s general rhetoric of lightness and innovative supporting structures. Soccer grounds in Britain, by contrast, were generally built with the soccer club itself as the client, which resulted in grounds that were used for soccer alone, normally situated in

in Sport and modernism in the visual arts in Europe, c. 1909–39
Modern housing,expatriate practitioners and the Volta River Project in decolonising Ghana

of modern architecture can therefore help to unpack the relationship between decolonisation, transculturation and globalisation. This is even more crucial when exploring mid-century built environment, designed while the project of worldwide modernity responded both to the ‘promise of cosmopolitan inclusiveness’ and that of globalisation’s ‘unclear logic of the

in Cultures of decolonisation

everything more comfortable for them – work, home life, holidays. This greater ease makes for more efficiency. The trouble is, though, that the top people seem to have forgotten to leave room for adjustment and for spare time. (qtd in Jacob and Clouzot 1965: 163) In a later interview with Cahiers du cinéma, from 1968, Tati dismissed the accusation that he was opposed to modern architecture. If he was, he demurred, he would have modelled Tativille, his elaborate and expensive set for Play Time, on the most ugly modern buildings. Instead, he deliberately designed it ‘so

in Screening the Paris suburbs
Abstract only

, sticking to the Vitruvian tradition, in ‘Body, Diagram, and Geometry in the Renaissance Fortress,’ Simon Pepper19 suggests that the image of the human body was a major factor in shaping the plans of military structures and settlements, which he illustrates with examples of fortifications throughout the Mediterranean and references to the texts of their designers. Juhani Pallasmaa20 also makes the case that modern architecture has been dominated by the visual sense at the expense of other sensory and bodily experiences, particularly the tactile sense, but additionally the

in The extended self