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Managing madness in early nineteenth-century asylums

An archaeology of lunacy examines the historic lunatic asylum from an interdisciplinary perspective, employing methods drawn from archaeology, social geography, and history to create a holistic view of the built heritage of the asylum as a distinctive building type. In the popular imagination, historic lunatic asylums were dark, monolithic, and homogenous, instruments for social confinement and punishment. This book aims to redress this historical reputation, showing how the built environment and material worlds of lunatic asylums were distinctive and idiosyncratic – and highly regional. They were also progressive spaces and proving grounds of architectural experimentation, where the reformed treatment practices known as moral management were trialled and refined. The standing remains of the nineteenth-century lunatic asylum system represent a unique opportunity to study a building-type in active transition, both materially and ideologically. When they were constructed, asylums were a composite of reform ideals, architectural materials, and innovative design approaches. An archaeological study of these institutions can offer a materially focused examination of how the buildings worked on a daily basis. This study combines critical analysis of the architecture, material remains, and historical documentary sources for lunatic asylums in England and Ireland. Students and scholars of later historical archaeology and built heritage will find the book a useful overview of this institutional site type, while historians of medicine will find the focus on interior design and architecture of use. The general public, for whom asylums frequently represent shadowy ruins or anonymous redevelopments, may be interested in learning more about the buildings.

James Greenhalgh

bureaucrats, and the imaginary futures they presented were attempts to secure consent for planning in a general sense. The manner in which local governments conceptualised and presented the notion of ‘the modern’ – through the communication of scientific planning expertise and the visual language of modern architecture – reveals a complex relationship between fantasies of progress stemming from discourses of reconstruction and the Blitz, the presentation of the war as a caesura and the development of technocratic approaches to the control and management of urban space

in Reconstructing modernity
Anna Dahlgren

architecture during the following decades. One of the best-known is the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925, where art, furniture, design and fashion were on display. Another influential exhibition was Weissenhofsiedlung in Stuttgart, arranged by the Deutscher Werkbund in 1927, which is considered to be the starting point for modern architecture and functionalism.53 The Stockholm Exhibition of 1930 was immensely influential and marked a breakthrough in functionalistic design and architecture.54 Like some other exhibitions

in Travelling images
Housing, tradition, and German modernism

This book constitutes the first major study of tradition as a field of political and cultural contestation in modern architectural culture. Examining German-language design theory from 1848 to 1918, Rousset traces the diverse and fascinating efforts by architectural reformists to confront class antagonism through the provision of simple, traditionally minded domestic design. Based on extensive original research and copiously illustrated, The architecture of social reform introduces readers to a host of modern architects, urbanists, reform experts, and art critics, including Gottfried Semper, Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl, Karl Henrici, Josef Stübben, Camillo Sitte, Rudolf Eberstadt, Walter Curt Behrendt, Werner Hegemann, Karl Scheffler, Hermann Muthesius, Paul Schultze-Naumburg, Albert Gessner, Albert E. Brinckmann, and Paul Mebes, who sought to reform housing along traditionalist lines from the scale of the living room to that of the city-region.

Countering the narrative that tradition signified the last breath of an eclectic and defunct historicism, The architecture of social reform breaks new ground in the assessment of modern architecture by revealing how architects and other design experts engaged with tradition in order to stake out a socially progressive position for themselves while learning from the past.

Readers interested in continuing debates over the future of architecture, housing, and politics will find this book essential reading.

Across the early decades of the seventeenth century, Englishmen and women moved through a physical, social, and mental world organised into a carefully maintained balance of motion and pause. This book examines how seventeenth-century English architectural theorists and designers rethought the domestic built environment in terms of mobility, as motion became a dominant mode of articulating the world across discourses. These discourses encompassed philosophy, political theory, poetry, and geography. From mid-century, the house and estate that had evoked staccato rhythms became triggers for mental and physical motion-evoking travel beyond England's shores, displaying vistas, and showcasing changeable wall surfaces. The book sets in its cultural context a strand of historical analysis stretching back to the nineteenth century Heinrich Wolfflin. It brings together the art, architectural, and cultural historical strands of analysis by examining why seventeenth-century viewers expected to be put in motion and what the effects were of that motion. Vistas, potentially mobile wall surface, and changeable garden provided precisely the essential distraction that rearticulated social divisions and assured the ideal harmony. Alternately feared and praised early in the century for its unsettling unpredictability, motion became the most certain way of comprehending social interactions, language, time, and the buildings that filtered human experience. At the heart of this book is the malleable sensory viewer, tacitly assumed in early modern architectural theory and history whose inescapable responsiveness to surrounding stimuli guaranteed a dependable world from the seventeenth century.

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Isabel Rousset

images and concepts of German society that soon became exhausted, their impact on architectural theory clearly extends beyond the late ninteenth century and helps us understand the realtionship between architecture, housing, and politics today. Tracing the moment when social history began to be written into modern architectural culture, this book began its timeline in the mid-nineteenth century, when old

in The architecture of social reform
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Isabel Rousset

-language discourse from 1848 to 1918, this book traces how architecture became intimately intertwined with the social politics of dwelling provision at large. It presents a new genealogy for modern architecture’s obsession with housing, locating in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries a dynamic period of exchange between a heterogeneous group of actors, including architects, urban planners, art critics

in The architecture of social reform
The spectacle of boxing and the geometry of tennis
Bernard Vere

attempt to reimagine the modern commodity. A demonstration of the status and social cachet of tennis in the context of modern architecture is provided by the modernist Van Nelle factory in Rotterdam, 1925–31, designed by the partnership of Brinkman and van der Vlugt, working with Mart Stam. In a report written for the board as far back as 1914, Kees van der Leeuw, the owner of the company, which sold pre-packed tea, coffee and tobacco, envisaged the new factory having ‘sports grounds’ as part of the ‘modern provision’ that would improve van Nelle’s ‘ “standing” as

in Sport and modernism in the visual arts in Europe, c. 1909–39

This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.

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Barry Reay

What I have been calling the archives vary in nature, and I have visited many of them – not all represented in this book – in the twenty years since my research and writing took a sexual turn. They range, in my own more recent experience, from the grandeur of the New York Public Library, Beaux-Arts landmark building on Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street, to the modern architectural beauty of the Beinecke Library, or the more understated Main Library of the San Francisco Public Library, temporary daytime home to so many of that city’s homeless who share its space with

in Sex in the archives