This book investigates the ways in which the crusades have been observed by historians from the 1090s to the present day. Especial emphasis is placed on the academic after-life of the crusades from the sixteenth to twenty-first centuries. The use of the crusade and its history, by humanists and other contemporary writers, occupied a world of polemic, serving parochial religious, cultural and political functions. Since the Renaissance humanists and Reformation controversialists, one attraction of the crusades had lain in their scope: recruited from all western nations, motivated by apparently transcendent belief systems and fought across three continents. From the perspective of western Europe's engagement with the rest of the globe from the sixteenth century, the crusades provided the only post-classical example to hand of an ideological and military world war. Remarkably, the patterns of analysis of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century have scarcely gone away: empathy; disapproval; relevance; the role of religion; materialist reductionism. Despite the explosion of literary attention, behind the empathetic romanticism of Michaud or the criticism of Mills and Scott, the themes identified by Thomas Fuller, Claude Fleury, David Hume, Edward Gibbon and William Robertson persisted. The idea of the crusades as explicit precursors to modern events, either as features of teleological historical progress or as parallels to modern actions remains potent. The combination of ideology, action, change, European conquest and religious fanaticism acted as a contrast or a comparison with the tone of revolutionary and reactionary politics.
This book is a social history of northern soul. It examines the origins and development of this music scene, its clubs, publications and practices, by locating it in the shifting economic and social contexts of the English midlands and north in the 1970s. The popularity of northern soul emerged in a period when industrial working-class communities were beginning to be transformed by deindustrialisation and the rise of new political movements around the politics of race, gender and locality. The book makes a significant contribution to the historiography of youth culture, popular music and everyday life in post-war Britain. The authors draw on an expansive range of sources including magazines/fanzines, diaries, letters, and a comprehensive oral history project to produce a detailed, analytical and empathetic reading of an aspect of working-class culture that was created and consumed by thousands of young men and women in the 1970s. A range of voices appear throughout the book to highlight the complexity of the role of class, race and gender, locality and how such identities acted as forces for both unity and fragmentation on the dance floors of iconic clubs such as the Twisted Wheel (Manchester), the Torch (Stoke-on-Trent), the Catacombs (Wolverhampton) and the Casino (Wigan).
modern Europe. Witch hunting, like plague and the Black Death, has become a stock phrase used to describe many modernevents. Prosecutions or persecutions that appear to target any individual or group with unseemly enthusiasm and questionable justification are called a ‘witch hunt’. Bizarrely, this past tragedy has survived and become embedded in the modern consciousness while the pogroms and massacres of Jews in the course of the fifteenth century are not especially well known (perhaps having been obliterated by the more horrific manifestations of twentieth
famous heresiographies like Thomas Edwards’s G
(London, 1646) and anti-enthusiastic Augustan narratives. As
Hessayon and Finnegan remind us, radicalism is a modern concept
applied retrospectively and often teleogically to early modernevents.
In this context, enthusiasts were radical in the etymological sense
of the term; they bypassed and dismissed their contemporaries or
predecessors to return directly to the roots of Christianity.28 As such,
enthusiasm may be considered as a sporadic pattern stemming from
the Radical Reformation, rather than
.), The Persistence of History: Cinema,
Television and the ModernEvent (New York: Routledge, 1995); Jim
Collins, Architectures of Excess: Cultural Life in the
Information Age (London: Routledge, 1995).
Lynn Spigel, ‘From the Dark Ages to the
Golden Age: Women’s Memories and Television Re
LaCapra, ‘Trauma, Absence, Loss,’ Critical Inquiry (Summer 1998). Levi and Rothberg (eds), The Holocaust, pp. 199–206.
Cathy Caruth, Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative and History
(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).
Hayden White, ‘Historical Emplotment and the Problem of Truth,’
in Saul Friedlander (ed.), Probing the Limits of Representation: Nazism
and the ‘Final Solution’ (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,
1992), p. 52.
Hayden White, ‘The Modernist Event,’ in V. Sobchack (ed.), The Persistence of History: Cinema, Television and the Modern
eighteenth centuries, Patrick was ignored by
Presbyterian writers with only two exceptions. Andrew Stewart (d. 1671), the
Minister of Donaghadee between 1646 and 1671, offered an extended Ussher-esque
discussion of Patrick in a largely forgotten manuscript that was only partly published
in 1866, and there was a brief mention of the saint in William Crawford’s History of
Ireland (1783).7 Irish Presbyterians were instead more concerned with modernevents,
especially the arrival of Scottish ministers in Ulster from 1613 and the formation of the
See Hayden White, ‘The Modernist Event’,
in Vivien Sobchack (ed.) The Persistence of History: Cinema,
Television and the ModernEvent (New York: Routledge, 1996), pp.
Robert A. Rosenstone, Visions of the Past: The
Challenge of Film to our Idea of History (Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1995
non-interference, which meant the OAU was largely powerless to effectively address violent conflict. When the AU officially replaced the OAU, the organization embraced a very different set of norms premised on human security and sovereignty as responsibility that led to a policy of non-indifference, which allowed more forceful action to prevent and manage violent conflict even if AU norms and capacities are still very much developing. However, significant analysis of how norms may be continuing to evolve in the AU era because of modernevents and changing interests