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Rosalie David

Ancient medical and healing systems are currently attracting considerable interest. This issue includes interdisciplinary studies which focus on new perceptions of some ancient and medieval medical systems, exploring how they related to each other, and assessing their contribution to modern society. It is shown that pre-Greek medicine included some rational elements, and that Egyptian and Babylonian medical systems contributed to a tradition which led from classical antiquity through the Middle Ages and beyond. The reliability of sources of evidence is considered, as well as the legacy of the ancient healing environments (temples and healing sanctuaries) and disease treatments (including surgical procedures and pharmaceutical preparations). Finally, where documentation survives, the legacy of social attitudes to health and disease is considered. Overarching principles directed policies of social medicine and healthcare in antiquity and the Middle Ages: for example, the causes and transmission routes of infectious diseases, as well as the basic principles of sterilization, were unknown, but nevertheless attempts were made to improve sanitation, provide clean water, and ensure access to trained physicians. In some cases, the need to limit the size of the population prompted the use of contraceptive measures, and surviving information also illuminates attitudes to deformity, disability and the treatment of the terminally ill.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond and Catia Gregoratti

’s participation, and as a project of development, involving the transformation of “traditional” or “backward” refugee cultures into modern societies’ ( Olivius, 2016 : 270). While refugee women’s agency, courage and resilience are often elevated within contemporary humanitarian discourses, there is still a tendency to represent them as ‘vulnerable and victimized … in need of protection from their own culture’ ( Olivius, 2016 : 282), and being entangled in the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
A sourcebook 1700–1820
Editors: E.J. Clery and Robert Miles

The aim of this book is to make available a body of texts connected with the cultural phenomenon known as Gothic writing. The book includes many of the critical writings and reviews which helped to constitute Gothic as a distinct genre, by revisions of the standards of taste, by critique and by outright attack. Together, this material represents a substantial part of the discursive hinterland of Gothic. The chapters on supernaturalism, on the aesthetics of Gothic, and on opposition to Gothic contain a number of the standard references in any history of the genre. They are juxtaposed with other more novel items of journalism, religious propaganda, folk tradition, non-fictional narrative, poetry and so on. The book also includes chapters on the politics of Gothic, before and after the French Revolution. Therefore, it includes extracts from Tacitus and Montesquieu, the authorities that eighteenth-century commentators most often referred to. The story of Britain's Gothic origins, although implicitly progressivist, was to be re-fashioned in the cultural and sociological theories critical of modern society: that vital eighteenth-century trend known as primitivism. The book also broadly covers the period from the height of the Gothic vogue (in the mid-1790s) to the mid-nineteenth century. The author hopes that the book will encourage students to follow new routes, make new connections, and enable them to read set works on the syllabus in more adventurous and historically informed ways.

On late modernity and social statehood
Author: Darrow Schecter

Populism, neoliberalism, and globalisation are just three of the many terms used to analyse the challenges facing democracies around the world. Critical Theory and Sociological Theory examines those challenges by investigating how the conditions of democratic statehood have been altered at several key historical intervals since 1945. The author explains why the formal mechanisms of democratic statehood, such as elections, have always been complemented by civic, cultural, educational, socio-economic, and, perhaps most importantly, constitutional institutions mediating between citizens and state authority. Critical theory is rearticulated with a contemporary focus in order to show how the mediations between citizens and statehood are once again rapidly changing. The book looks at the ways in which modern societies have developed mixed constitutions in several senses that go beyond the official separation of legislative, executive, and judicial powers. In addition to that separation, one also witnesses a complex set of conflicts, agreements, and precarious compromises that are not adequately defined by the existing conceptual vocabulary on the subject. Darrow Schecter shows why a sociological approach to critical theory is urgently needed to address prevailing conceptual deficits and to explain how the formal mechanisms of democratic statehood need to be complemented and updated in new ways today.

Marcel Stoetzle

that one takes away from corporations or from the nobles, one can entrust a part of them to secondary bodies formed temporarily of plain citizens; in this manner the freedom of particular persons will be surer without lessening their equality. (667) Tocqueville argues that in the past hereditary officials at the level of provincial governments were independent from the central power because they did not receive their office from the latter. In modern society elections can fulfil the same function of granting independence from the central power. Likewise

in Beginning classical social theory
Marcel Stoetzle

’ also denotes the reality of modern society itself, looked at under the particular perspective of how society organizes its own reproduction. (Concerning the words ‘political’ and ‘society’, it is worth keeping in mind that in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century contexts the modern distinction between ‘the political’ and ‘the social’, as well as ‘state’ and ‘society’, was only gradually emerging. The word ‘political’ still resonated with its classical Greek root in polis – the city state – and politeia , which means society, community and the state all at the

in Beginning classical social theory
Hannah Arendt’s Jewish writings
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

filthy literary trash. 5 In emphasising the modernity of antisemitism, Arendt wanted to show that it is a phenomenon of shorter durée than anti-Judaism but of longer durée than those who position it always in the past. Antisemitism has deep roots in modern society even though modern society also has its own critical resources with which to combat it. While it is mistaken to naturalise antisemitism as

in Antisemitism and the left
Vittorio Bufacchi

our society shows concern for people in old age, it is only because, deep down, we pity them for being more vulnerable, more weak, more ill, less autonomous. We need to resist this misconception of old age, just as Cicero did many years ago. He reminds us that we should not pity people for being old; instead we should recognize the fact that people in old age still have a great deal to offer to society, that old age does not make us useless or worthless. Modern society has ceased to see its senior citizens as citizens; instead it considers them as a burden, both

in Everything must change
Marcel Stoetzle

pair of concepts is confidence and mistrust. These can be caused by knowledge of another person, but also by sympathy or antipathy ‘which sometimes proves to be unwarranted’ (6). Here Tönnies begins the discussion of modern society against the background of the very generic concepts discussed so far: ‘On the other hand, confidence has become highly impersonalized through modern trade’ (7) where it is assumed that ‘even the personally less reliable businessman’ will repay his debts out of self-interest. Usually a business, not a person, enjoys financial credit. In

in Beginning classical social theory
Abstract only
Darrow Schecter

Frankfurt School and bio-​political theory, are far from resolved or outdated. This book examines some of the most important problems besetting democracy today by delving into what can be considered an acute and still very much unresolved issue in democratic theory and practice. On the one hand democracy will appear to be authoritarian and out of step with the complexities of modern society if resolute attempts are undertaken to make it substantive and social rather than formal and political. Twentieth-​century history in Eastern Europe and elsewhere indicates that

in Critical theory and sociological theory