consequence of the legal and institutional modernisation of the customary practice, what I label as the Truth-with-a-Capital-T – being the influence of the state, authority and the regime, the effectual truth – a notion referring to the consequentialist ethics animating the gacaca from below and finally the moral truth – referring to the socio-cultural and primarily non-discursive exploration of one’s moralcharacter through everyday practices and interactions in the aftermath of violence.
The design of the gacaca system was, at best, aimed at establishing the
Though the just war tradition has an ancient pedigree, like any tradition of thought, it is subject to historical highs and lows. Drawing on examples from the history of warfare from the Crusades to the present day, this book explores the limits and possibilities of the moral regulation of war. It focuses on the tensions which exist between war and morality. The moral ambiguity and mixed record of that tradition is acknowledged and the dangers which an exaggerated view of the justice or moral worth of war poses are underlined. The adoption of a 'dispositional' view of ethical life, in which moral character and moral culture play a decisive part, widens and transforms the ethics of war. Realism resists the application of morality to war. Pacifism harms and benefits the just war tradition in about equal measure. In opposition to the amoral and wholly pragmatic approach of the 'pure' realist, the just war theorist insists on the moral determination of war where that is possible, and on the moral renunciation of war where it is not. Moral realism is what the just war tradition purports to be about. Legitimate authority has become entirely subordinated to the concept of state sovereignty. If moderate forms of consequentialism threaten the principle of noncombatant immunity, more extreme or purer forms clearly undermine it. The strategic and the ethical problems of counterterrorism are compounded by the emergence of a new and more extreme form of terrorism.
and principles, are the real determinants
of the moral outcome of war. They represent the moral capacities (or incapacities) of belligerents. They are the moral habits or
powers which make up the moralcharacter of the individual and
which incline or dispose the moral agent to act in certain ways.
Neither just conduct nor unjust conduct can occur without such
The formation of the moralcharacter, the determination of
what moral capacities or incapacities an individual brings to war, is
a social as well as an individual process. Making sense of just and
affirm the naturalness and decency that were thought to form the fundamental character of the British people. Yet from the perspective of the emergent modern world, Scandinavia and its peoples had – and could have – little in common with Great Britain. In social organisation and presumed personal and moralcharacter, Nordic populations certainly were not comparable to the indigenes as they were described by missionaries and merchants elsewhere around the globe. But as with the people of those lands, the alleged deficiencies of the Nordic peoples still could be
Chapter 6 analyses the Johnson government’s nationalising vision for post-Brexit Britain. By ‘unleashing Britain’s potential’ and ‘getting Brexit done’, the Johnson government promised national renewal. The chapter shows how post-EU nationalisation differs from post-imperial nationalisation: not as inward-looking in terms of global capitalism, as policies such as freeports show, and more divisive through stoking culture wars issues over the moral character of the nation.
This book provocatively argues that much of what English writers of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries remembered about medieval English geography, history, religion, and literature, they remembered by means of medieval and modern Scandinavia. These memories, in turn, figure in something even broader. Protestant and fundamentally monarchical, the Nordic countries constituted a politically kindred spirit in contrast with France, Italy, and Spain. Along with the so-called Celtic fringe and overseas colonies, Scandinavia became one of the external reference points for the forging of the United Kingdom. Subject to the continual refashioning of memory, the region became at once an image of Britain’s noble past and an affirmation of its current global status, rendering trips there rides on a time machine. The book’s approach to the Anglo-Scandinavian past addresses the specific impact of Nordic materials in framing conceptions of the English Middle Ages and positions the literature of medievalism less as the cause of modern Anglo-Nordic interests than as the recurrence of the same cultural concerns that animated early modern politics, science, and natural history. Emphasising multilingual non-literary traditions (such as travel writing and ethnography) and following four topics – natural history, ethnography, moral character, and literature – the focus of Northern Memories is on how texts, with or without any direct connections to one another, reproduced shared tropes and outlooks and on how this reproduction cumulatively furthered large cultural ideas.
Social dancing in the USSR from the 1920s to the early 1960s
Klaus Nathaus and James Nott
Ballroom dancing developed in the USSR in a specific set of conditions typical to many totalitarian regimes. During the period in question, the Soviet party-state aimed for political and ideological control over its citizens. Naturally, this included control over their leisure activities. For the entirety of the Soviet Period, political and public discourse maintained that dance served as one of the most desirable ways for individuals (and especially youth) to spend their free time. It was concluded that dance had a huge influence on Soviet citizens’ political consciousness, physical development, moral character and taste. This explains why state and public institutions, alongside dance and music experts, continuously tried to invent and disseminate new Soviet dances that would serve to educate the so-called ‘New Soviet Man’. Among other things, these ambitious goals often required the prohibition or censorship of modern western dancing styles. The politics of prohibiting and allowing certain types of dances varied depending on the era and was linked to wider political developments. However, attempts by Soviet politicians and some of the most renowned choreographers to regulate and nationalise the dance practice of the population were rendered less effective by the efforts of many dance evening organisers and the practice of amateur dancers to use the state project for their own motives. Social dancing allowed Soviet citizens to learn gender-specific body language and communication, to find friends and even partners for life. Those who engaged in couple dances quickly mastered the language of the official ideology to legitimise their practice to the state when necessary.
Richly illustrated with over 110 colour and black and white images, the book
productively contests the supposedly exclusive feminine aspect of the style
moderne (art deco). It explores how alternative, parallel and overlapping
experiences and expressions of decorative modernism, nationalism, gender and
sexuality in the heady years surrounding World War I converge in the protean
figure of the deco dandy. As such, the book significantly departs from and
corrects the assumptions and biases that have dominated scholarship on and
popular perceptions of art deco. The book outlines how designed products and
representations of and for the dandy both existed within and outwith normative
expectations of gender and sexuality complicating men’s relationship to consumer
culture more broadly and the moderne more specifically. Through a sustained
focus on the figure of the dandy, the book offers a broader view of art deco by
claiming a greater place for the male body and masculinity in this history than
has been given to date. The mass appeal of the dandy in the 1920s was a way to
redeploy an iconic, popular and well-known typology as a means to stimulate
national industries, to engender a desire for all things made in France.
Important, essential and productive moments in the history of the cultural life
of Paris presented in the book are instructive of the changing role performed by
consumerism, masculinity, design history and national identity.
Refiguring childhood stages a series of encounters with biosocial power, which is a specific zone of intensity within the more encompassing arena of biopower and biopolitics. Assembled at the intersection of thought and practice, biosocial power attempts to bring envisioned futures into the present, taking hold of life in the form of childhood, thereby bridging being and becoming while also shaping the power relations that encapsulate the social and cultural world(s) of adults and children. Taking up a critical perspective which is attentive to the contingency of childhoods – the ways in which particular childhoods are constituted and configured – the method used in the book is a transversal genealogy that moves between past and present while also crossing a series of discourses and practices framed by children’s rights (the right to play), citizenship, health, disadvantage and entrepreneurship education. The overarching analysis converges on contemporary neoliberal enterprise culture, which is approached as a conjuncture that helps to explain, and also to trouble, the growing emphasis on the agency and rights of children. It is against the backdrop of this problematic that the book makes its case for refiguring childhood. Focusing on the how, where and when of biosocial power, Refiguring childhood will appeal to researchers and students interested in examining the relationship between power and childhood through the lens of social and political theory, sociology, cultural studies, history and geography.
Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.