individual human life and for that person’s own interests and projects, the appeals
of humanitarians become mere arguments, opinions, preferences, not obligations anchored in
fundamental and shared moral rules.
Those who challenge legitimate authority can now be painted as anti-social elements who
fragment society and threaten political stability, who undermine moralprobity and who are a
danger to the community, which has an overwhelming collective interest in stopping them. And
they can be stopped even with the use of lethal violence (Presidents
As the British and French empires expanded, constructing new imperial dimensions through growing commerce and the relationships of industrialisation, the bases of Spanish power were being undermined. Nationalism, revolt, the pursuit of forms of decolonisation (often aided by Spain's rivals) became the prime characteristic of Central and South American politics. This book examines the study of natural history in the Spanish empire in the years 1750-1850, explaining how the Spanish authorities collected specimens for the Real Jardín Botanico and the Real Gabinete de Historia Natural. During this period, Spain made strenuous efforts to survey, inventory and exploit the natural productions of her overseas possessions, orchestrating a series of scientific expeditions and cultivating and displaying American fauna and flora in metropolitan gardens and museums. This book assesses the cultural significance of natural history, emphasising the figurative and utilitarian value with which eighteenth-century Spaniards invested natural objects, from globetrotting elephants to three-legged chickens. Attention is also paid to the ambiguous position of Creole (American-born Spanish) naturalists, who were simultaneously anxious to secure European recognition for their work, to celebrate the natural wealth of their homelands. It considers the role of precision instruments, physical suffering and moral probity in the construction of the naturalist's professional identity. The book assesses how indigenous people, women and Creoles measured up to these demanding criteria. Finally, it discusses how the creation, legitimisation and dissemination of scientific knowledge reflected broader questions of imperial power and national identity.
English radicalism has been a deep-rooted but minority tradition in the political culture since at least the seventeenth century. The central aim of this book is to examine, in historical and political context, a range of key events and individuals that exemplify English radicalism in the twentieth century. This analysis is preceded by defining precisely what has constituted this tradition; and by the main outline of the development of the tradition from the Civil War to the end of the nineteenth century. Three of the main currents of English radicalism in the twentieth century have been the labour movement, the women’s movement and the peace movement. These are discussed in some detail, as a framework for the detailed consideration of ten key representative figures of the tradition in the twentieth century: Bertrand Russell, Sylvia Pankhurst, Ellen Wilkinson, George Orwell, E.P. Thompson, Michael Foot, Joan Maynard, Stuart Hall, Tony Benn and Nicolas Walter. The question of ‘agency’ – of how to bring about radical change in a predominantly conservative society and culture – has been a fundamental issue for English radicals. It is argued that, in the twentieth century, many of the important achievements in progressive politics have taken place in and through extra-parliamentary movements, as well as through formal political parties and organisations – the Labour Party and other socialist organisations – and on occasion, through libertarian and anarchist politics. The final chapter considers the continuing relevance of this political tradition in the early twenty-first century, and reviews its challenges and prospects.
enhance their social
standing and their scientific credibility. I consider the role of
precision instruments, physical suffering and moralprobity in the
construction of the naturalist’s professional identity, and I also
assesses how indigenous people, women and creoles measured up to these
demanding criteria. I am concerned, throughout the book, with what
qualified a person as a trustworthy purveyor of
rectifying this situation. Ordaining as priests married men of moralprobity will pave the way to female priests, both now possibilities worth exploring. This seems to be the only future solution to facts which are hard to ignore: ‘the Church is simply unable to recruit and retain enough male celibate priests to meet the sacramental needs of faithful Catholics’ (Schoenherr 2002 : xxviii). Within this secular culture, it seems that there is little favourable space to discuss theological questions. However, it also cannot be denied that a resurgence in biblical films and TV
Writing the literary pilgrimage, from Gaskell to Woolf
, vigorous, active, keen, and daring’, while
her body was ‘feeble, nervous, suffering under exertion’ (quoted in Wilkes,
Gaskell’s presentation of Brontë as a tiny, frail woman, a domestic
and dutiful daughter who was also strong in moralprobity and a boldly
free spirit associated with the moors, helped readers to negotiate these
apparent contradictions after her death. One literary pilgrim, who signed
himself ‘W.P.P.’, visiting Haworth in 1856, summed up these oppositions
when he wrote: ‘Those tiny fingers, those small hands, were to wield a
Henry’s eyes. Her moral quandary moves out of
the simple circle of self versus tyrannical parent, into the more
complex circling of capricious pleasure versus moralprobity where one
is held to account, not for one’s desires, but for the imaginative
excesses they prompt, for the mismatch between what one imagines, and
what is; and not just for the harm it does to oneself, but to
respectability, cleanliness and moralprobity and the unwashed and disreputable.
For many poor Londoners having a bathroom and not having to resort to the public bath or the
tin bath were signs of postwar progress and social improvement. So, in a way the baths are
crucially implicated in the history of postwar culture, both a site of nostalgia and
something to be happy about not having to use anymore.
Then there is also the sense of the body as part of the care of the self,
maintaining personal dignity even when the social
me by degrees / The keys of all my doors, which I will mould / In wax, and take their fair impression, / To have by them new keys’ (214–16). The single set of keys symbolised the married couple’s joint domestic purpose, and this second set succinctly expresses divided goals and loyalties. As was the case in the denouement of Arden , the different aspects of spatial control which organised the depositions’ discussions of authority are set against one another: the functional operation of locks and keys, the patriarchal licence of rule and the moralprobity on which
Minnelli’s film. Whether or
not it can decisively inflect our understanding of the work is another matter.
Is the film really a beacon of religious and moralprobity? Minnelli’s film
can be criticized for excising the radical ambiguities of Flaubert’s novel, for
Adultery and adulteration in film versions of Madame Bovary
making Charles a much more attractive character and less deserving of his
treatment by Emma and thereby for endorsing an oppressive patriarchal
frame, for creating an Emma who is ‘more neurotic than sexy’,21 and as a
result of all these factors