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Female sexual agency and male victims
Jenny DiPlacidi

[O]‌n genetic grounds, mother–son incest should be the rarest, brother–sister more common, and father–daughter the most common. Joseph Shepher, Incest : A Biosocial View ( 1983 ) 1 In examining the occurrence of

in Gothic incest
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Family, school and antenatal education
Angela Davis

3 Educating mothers: family, school and antenatal education D uring the second half of the twentieth century the question of how girls should be prepared for their future role as mothers provoked considerable debate. There was often disagreement about where the education of mothers should take place; and indeed if such education was necessary at all. Significant changes also took place over the period, as the assumption that all women would want to be mothers was challenged. Moreover, despite the rhetoric during these years about the need to educate girls to be

in Modern motherhood
Feminine and feminist educators and thresholds of Indian female interaction, 1870–1932
Tim Allender

response, Gandhi had at his disposal a bewildering array of possible criticisms about a clearly failed education system, yet he posed a simple question: would Hartog’s colonial education make Indian girls better mothers? 1 This chapter examines the emerging receptiveness of leading European females to the increasingly recognisable, to them, veracity of Indian cultural and

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
Cara Delay

3 The Irish Catholic mother Autobiographies and memoirs written in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries affirm the pivotal influence of the Irish Catholic mother. As Maynooth scholar Walter MacDonald reminisced in 1926: I love to think of my mother, who was quite unlike – superior to – any other woman whom I have met, of her class. ... She was always at work, heavy work very often, about the house – ­cleaning, washing, ironing, sewing, cooking … . I remember, above everything else, the reverent care with which she undressed us and put us to bed

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
Donnacha Seán Lucey

3 Single mothers and institutionalisation This chapter examines the Irish Free State’s strategies to deal with unmarried mothers in the 1920s and 1930s. Prior to independence unmarried mothers and their children were often relieved in workhouses. In the reforms of the early 1920s a new network of county homes, county hospitals and district hospitals were established on the grounds of former workhouses. County and district hospitals solely provided acute medical attention, but the county homes were a continuation of the workhouses, and provided institutional

in The end of the Irish Poor Law?
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Maternity and child welfare in Dublin 1922–60

Motherhood is a complex issue involving the mechanics of pregnancy and childbirth and the life experience of mothering and rearing children. This book provides a detailed account of the history of maternity and child welfare in Dublin between 1922 and 1960. It places maternity and child welfare in the context of twentieth-century Irish history. The book offers accounts of how women and children were viewed, treated and used by key lobby groups in Irish society and by the Irish state. It explores the development of female 'social rights of citizenship' during the first forty years of Independence. Maternity and child welfare often provided the pretext for debate on issues quite apart from mothers and children, which related to the deep-seated fears regarding the power lines in Irish society. In Britain, awareness on infant mortality led to a series of investigative committees, including the Inter-Departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration and the National Conference of Infant Mortality. A constant theme throughout the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s was how the standard of maternity and child welfare services varied throughout the country. The book discusses the Dublin experiment. In the early part of the twentieth century, the ignorance of Dublin mothers was blamed for the high rate of infant mortality in the city. The stringency of the Emergency period, the sustained atmosphere of deprivation throughout the 1940s and the British White Paper, A National Health Service stimulated a debate in Ireland regarding the public health services.

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Maternal welfare and child health, 1920–40
Lindsey Earner-Byrne

3 The Dublin mother: maternal welfare and child health, 1920–40 Without doubt, apart from the special needy cases, ignorance on the part of young mothers is one of the greatest factors in the production of our high infant mortality rates; and, it is the wide-spread teaching of the simple rules of mothercraft we must rely upon if we are to save the babies and reduce the high death-rates … The mother has now every opportunity at her door for obtaining the necessary advice as to how to rear her infant, but the Treasury … has not provided adequately to give

in Mother and child
Women’s claims for financial support
Lindsay R. Moore

4 Wives and (unwed) mothers: women’s claims for financial support T he responsibilities incurred by men upon marriage and fatherhood were legally enforced by local authorities and the women who had a stake in seeing that these obligations were upheld. Wives who had been deserted or neglected by their husbands appealed to local magistrates to compel their husbands to provide financial maintenance, while unwed mothers and midwives often worked with local legal authorities to hold fathers accountable for child support. When male heads of household shirked their

in Women before the court
Emily J. Manktelow

gendered understanding of missionary parenting. While mothers were more concerned with the day-to-day practicalities of life, fathers fretted about their children’s long-term spiritual and economic prospects. Or, to put this another way, mothers and fathers found it easiest to express their anxieties and concerns within gendered paradigms of both parenthood and work. Both of these parental priorities emanated from the gendered nature of vocational concerns and thus the self-imposed limits of expression imposed upon them by total

in Missionary families
Felicity Dunworth

the end of her life, wrote her Miscellanea for her son Bernye, her purpose was to ensure that her maternal advice and guidance would continue to support Bernye after she died: ‘I leave thee this portable veni mecum for thy Counsellor, in which thou mayest see the true portraiture of thy mothers minde’. She writes of herself as at a point of transition between life and death, ‘a dead woman among the living’, and she knows that this

in Mothers and meaning on the early modern English stage