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Katherine Fennelly

). Lunatic asylums, as large institutional buildings, were frequently constructed with viewsheds in mind – interior viewscapes which could be actively employed to prevent abuse and manage patient surveillance. Access and movement were central to management practices and a strict hierarchy of access was practised in asylums, with the manager or matron at the top, and confined patients and their visitors at the lowest levels. Employing graphical representations of the interior of a building showing permeability and pathways can illustrate the spatial hierarchy of the asylum

in An archaeology of lunacy
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Migrant prehistory
Paul Carter

autobiographical moment, they indicate a poetic direction. With great subtlety, Gray calls out the poetic figure of simile, suggesting that exact observation describes his ‘interests’ better. In that ‘instant’ Gray saw through the similarity to grasp an absolute difference. It is not clear whether two movement forms differ – a matter of physics and mechanics – or whether two associative universes collide. The difference is that the swallow is free to fly ‘fast as a cricket ball’, and converges at will, as it were, on a flight path (the skimming ball) dictated by convention and

in Translations, an autoethnography

Women Art Workers constitutes the first comprehensive history of the network of women who worked at the heart of the English Arts and Crafts movement from the 1870s to the 1930s. Challenging the long-standing assumption that the Arts and Crafts simply revolved around celebrated male designers like William Morris, this book instead offers a new social and cultural account of the movement, which simultaneously reveals the breadth of the imprint of women art workers upon the making of modern society. Thomas provides unprecedented insight into how women – working in fields such as woodwork, textiles, sculpture, painting, and metalwork – navigated new authoritative roles as ‘art workers’ by asserting expertise across a range of interconnected cultures so often considered in isolation: from the artistic to the professional, intellectual, entrepreneurial, and domestic. Through examination of newly discovered institutional archives and private papers, and a wide range of unstudied advertisements, letters, manuals, photographs, and calling cards, Women Art Workers elucidates the critical importance of the spaces around which women conceptualised alternative creative and professional lifestyles: guild halls, exhibitions, homes, studios, workshops, and the cityscape. Shattering the traditional periodisation of the movement as ‘Victorian’, this research reveals that the early twentieth century was a critical juncture at which women art workers became ever more confident in promoting their own vision of the Arts and Crafts. Shaped by their precarious gendered positions, they opened up the movement to a wider range of social backgrounds and interests, and redirected the movement’s radical potential into contemporary women-centred causes.

Myths, practices, turning points

This book offers new insights into the history of the Red Cross Movement, the world’s oldest humanitarian body originally founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland. Incorporating new research, the book reimagines and re-evaluates the Red Cross as a global institutional network. It is the first book of its kind to focus on the rise of the Red Cross, and analyses the emergence of humanitarianism through a series of turning points, practices and myths. The book explores the three unique elements that make up the Red Cross Movement: the International Committee of the Red Cross; the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent, formerly known as the League of Red Cross Societies (both based in Geneva); and the 191 national societies. It also coincides with the centenary of the founding of the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, formed in May 1919 in the aftermath of the First World War. The book will be invaluable for students, lecturers, humanitarian workers, and those with a general interest in this highly recognizable and respected humanitarian brand. With seventeen chapters by leading scholars and researchers from Europe, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and America, the book deserves a place on the bookshelves of historians and international relations scholars interested to learn more about this unique, complex and contested organisation.

Martin Upchurch
Darko Marinković

5 The workers’ movement We now trace the role of the workers’ movement in Serbia during and after the Milošević period. Before doing so, it is important to record the experience and problems faced by workers and their unions under postcommunism in the countries of central and eastern Europe (CEE). Old ‘official’ unions have been subject to varying degrees of reform, while new ‘independent’ unions have arisen to compete. Once we understand these general problems, we can locate the Serbian experience more trenchantly by examining both the political character of

in Workers and revolution in Serbia
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September 1974 to June 1975
Pedro Ramos Pinto

4 Building a movement Building a movement: September 1974 to June 1975 September 1974 to June 1975 ‘An End to Shantytowns!’ ‘The People Build the Houses, the Houses are the People’s!’ ‘Yes to Houses, No to Shacks!’ ‘Stamp Out Exploitative Landlords!’ ‘Against Unemployment – Down with Self-­Build!’ ‘Yes to the Occupations, No to the Rental Law!’ ‘The Struggle of the Neighbourhoods is One!’ (Slogans from a demonstration, 17 May 1975)1 The growth of the urban movement over the second half of 1974 was a matter with wider resonance than simply the (admittedly

in Lisbon rising
Continuities, changes and challenges
Neville Wylie
Melanie Oppenheimer
, and
James Crossland

For over 150 years, the ‘Red Cross’ has brought succour to the world’s needy – from sick and wounded soldiers on the battlefield to political detainees, internally displaced people, and those suffering from the effects of natural disasters – as well as having played a major role in a range of global developments in public health, such as blood transfusion. The world’s pre-eminent humanitarian movement, its relevance and status today are as high as they have ever been in its long history. At the time of writing, headlines carry news of the efforts of the

in The Red Cross Movement
Open Access (free)
Civil rites of passage
Sharon Monteith

cannibalises images, expropriates themes and techniques, and decants them into the contents of our collective memory. Movie memories are influenced by the (inter)textuality of media styles – Fredric Jameson has gone so far as to argue that such styles displace ‘real’ history. The Civil Rights Movement made real history but the Movement struggle was also a media event, played out as a teledrama in homes across

in Memory and popular film
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Marching forward
Daisy Payling

were a common feature of Sheffield's 1980s politics. This chapter examines the continued prominence of the labour movement in the city even as industry declined and left-wing thinkers began to discuss class in terms of its relationship to a variety of social and cultural identities. 3 The labour movement's dominance can be explained and evidenced by the close relationship long shared by the Trades Council and the Labour Party, and by the continued influence of adult education centres such as Wortley Hall and Northern

in Socialist Republic
Tower houses and waterways
Victoria L. McAlister

places necessitated circuitous land routes. That is not to say, however, that in some areas land movement did not dominate. In the flat, fertile and politically more stable lands, such as in County Meath, people did travel using terrestrial roads. This would have offered more flexibility than river and sea routes, since paths could be altered and a wider range of destinations accessed. Goods and materials were moved from agricultural estates to the ports and towns via these local networks. Limited information from the west of Ireland, combined with comparative evidence

in The Irish tower house