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Bernadette C. Hayes
Ian McAllister

within the same territory as being the essential endogenous cause of the conflict. In this context, the pattern of national identities in Northern Ireland is not unique, except for two important differences. First, in Northern Ireland national identity has a much greater influence on political preferences and outlooks than is the case in, for example, other parts of the United Kingdom. Identities continue

in Conflict to peace
The Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire

Through a study of the British Empire's largest women's patriotic organisation, formed in 1900 and still in existence, this book examines the relationship between female imperialism and national identity. It throws light on women's involvement in imperialism; on the history of ‘conservative’ women's organisations; on women's interventions in debates concerning citizenship and national identity; and on the history of women in white settler societies. After placing the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire (IODE) in the context of recent scholarly work in Canadian, gender and imperial history, and post-colonial theory, the book follows the IODE's history through the twentieth century. Chapters focus upon the IODE's attempts to create a British Canada through its maternal feminist work in education, health, welfare and citizenship. In addition, the book reflects on the IODE's responses to threats to Anglo-Canadian hegemony posed by immigration, World Wars and Communism, and examines the complex relationship between imperial loyalty and settler nationalism. Tracing the organisation into the postcolonial era, where previous imperial ideas are outmoded, it considers the transformation from patriotism to charity, and the turn to colonisation at home in the Canadian North.

A centuries-old dream?

This book assesses the formation of Croatian national identity in the 1990s. It develops a novel framework, calling into question both primordial and modernist approaches to nationalism and national identity, before applying that framework to Croatia. In doing so, the book provides a new way of thinking about how national identity is formed and why it is so important. An explanation is given of how Croatian national identity was formed in the abstract, via a historical narrative that traces centuries of yearning for a national state. The book shows how the government, opposition parties, dissident intellectuals and diaspora groups offered alternative accounts of this narrative in order to legitimise contemporary political programmes based on different versions of national identity. It then looks at how these debates were manifested in social activities as diverse as football, religion, economics and language. This book attempts to make an important contribution to both the way we study nationalism and national identity, and our understanding of post-Yugoslav politics and society.

Engaging with ethnicity
Joseph McGonagle

1 Changing notions of national identity: engaging with ethnicity As the Introduction made clear, since the early 1980s France has experienced an important period of significant political and social change. Many prevailing notions of national identity were redefined as the descendants of post-World War Two migrants to France (and especially those of Maghrebi heritage) came of age. Laws on nationality and citizenship were repeatedly revised, and controversy raged over measures that purportedly challenged the primacy of French republican universalism as well as

in Representing ethnicity in contemporary French visual culture
A history of Korean cinema
Hyangjin Lee

numerous programmes to change the economic structure of Korean society, including one to increase agricultural production, particularly rice, the main staple of the region. In addition, Japan put various cultural programmes into effect to demoralise Koreans as colonial subjects. Japan’s cultural control over Koreans aimed to root out their sense of national identity as demonstrated by the prohibition of the Korean language in

in Contemporary Korean cinema
Richard Hayton

5 National identity and the English question The Conservative Party is the nationalist party par excellence. A Conservative Party which cannot present itself to the country as a national party suffers under a severe handicap. (Enoch Powell, quoted in Lynch, 1999: xi) Introduction The question of national identity, epitomised by the issue of European integration, has long been problematic for the Conservatives (Chapter 4). This chapter also explores the question of identity, through an examination of Conservative Party policy and discourse in two further areas

in Reconstructing conservatism?
Alex J. Bellamy

1 National identity and the ‘great divide’ According to Tom Nairn, ‘the reason why the dispute between modernists and primordialists is not resolved is because it is irresolvable’.1 This is because the two approaches place different emphases on different aspects of identity formation. Nairn described the so-called ‘Warwick debate’, between Anthony Smith and Ernest Gellner, as a ‘courteous difference of emphasis’.2 He insisted that the debate provided an inadequate set of approaches to the problem of nation formation and that there appeared to be little prospect

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Alex J. Bellamy

4 Contemporary accounts of Croatian national identity According to Benedict Anderson , ‘communities are to be distinguished, not by their falsity/genuineness, but by the style in which they are imagined’.1 This chapter investigates how the Croatian nation was imagined in the 1990s. It focuses on four sets of accounts that attempted to provide contemporary resonance to the abstract frames of national identity discussed in the previous chapter. These accounts attempted to either interpret what it meant to be Croatian in order to secure support for a political

in The formation of Croatian national identity

Examining the ways in which the BBC constructed and disseminated British national identity during the second quarter of the twentieth century, this book focuses in a comprehensive way on how the BBC, through its radio programmes, tried to represent what it meant to be British. It offers a revision of histories of regional broadcasting in Britain that interpret it as a form of cultural imperialism. The regional organisation of the BBC, and the news and creative programming designed specifically for regional listeners, reinforced the cultural and historical distinctiveness of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The BBC anticipated, and perhaps encouraged, the development of the hybrid ‘dual identities’ characteristic of contemporary Britain.

Robert F. Dewey, Jr.

1 National identity and Britishness Analysis of national identity is overwhelmingly a process of deconstruction. But any study acknowledging the complexities of patriotic sentiment must also involve a process of reconstruction. In other words, it is one thing to label manifestations of nationalism as extremist, insular or derived from fallacious assumptions and quite another to examine their pervasiveness and appeal. The following discussion of national identity, envisaged as a series of leitmotifs rather than a rigid analytic structure, is designed to help

in British national identity and opposition to membership of Europe, 1961–63