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Myths, practices, turning points

This book offers new insights into the history of the Red Cross Movement, the world’s oldest humanitarian body originally founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland. Incorporating new research, the book reimagines and re-evaluates the Red Cross as a global institutional network. It is the first book of its kind to focus on the rise of the Red Cross, and analyses the emergence of humanitarianism through a series of turning points, practices and myths. The book explores the three unique elements that make up the Red Cross Movement: the International Committee of the Red Cross; the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent, formerly known as the League of Red Cross Societies (both based in Geneva); and the 191 national societies. It also coincides with the centenary of the founding of the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, formed in May 1919 in the aftermath of the First World War. The book will be invaluable for students, lecturers, humanitarian workers, and those with a general interest in this highly recognizable and respected humanitarian brand. With seventeen chapters by leading scholars and researchers from Europe, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and America, the book deserves a place on the bookshelves of historians and international relations scholars interested to learn more about this unique, complex and contested organisation.

Valérie Robin Azevedo

In recent years, exhumation campaigns of mass graves resulting from the armed conflict (1980–2000) between the Maoist guerrillas of PCP-Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the States armed forces have increased in Peru. People in rural Andes, the most marginalised sectors of national society, which were also particularly affected by the war, are the main group concerned with exhumations. This article examines the handling, flow and re-appropriation of exhumed human remains in public space to inform sociopolitical issues underlying the reparation policies implemented by the State, sometimes with the support of human rights NGOs. How do the families of victims become involved in this unusual return of their dead? Have the exhumations become a new repertoire of collective action for Andean people seeking to access their fundamental rights and for recognition of their status as citizens? Finally, what do these devices that dignify the dead reveal about the internal workings of Peruvian society – its structural inequities and racism – which permeate the social fabric?

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

), obediently carried out the orders of the Vichy government’s ‘national revolution’ and was an active partner of the colonial authorities during the wars in Indochina and Algeria, to name a few striking examples. The same can be said for all the other national societies, though we should note that this is not the case for the ICRC itself, which has maintained its neutrality to the point that it has sometimes been criticised for it ( Favez, 1999 ). In that historical context, the Red

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The New Zealand Red Cross and the international Red Cross Movement
Margaret Tennant

presence in New Zealand since the First World War, the earthquake had pushed the New Zealand Government into formally recognising the NZRC as a national society in 1932. From the Hawkes Bay earthquake of 1931 to the Christchurch earthquake of 2011, natural disaster provided a distinctive lens from which NZRC stalwarts gained a sense of being part of a wider web of ‘mutual benefit and jeopardy’. 2 New Zealand did not experience twentieth-century combat on its own shores, though it contributed troops to far-distant conflicts. Speakers at the 1940 conference looked into

in The Red Cross Movement
The League of Red Cross Societies, the Australian Red Cross and its Junior Red Cross in the 1920s
Melanie Oppenheimer

nation’. 2 The links that could be established between the various national Junior Red Cross programmes concerning international friendship and good will would create an awareness of other nationalities and cultures, and improve international relations through the establishment of a global children’s network. The newly established League of Red Cross Societies (LRCS) and its Bureau of Junior Membership would play a leading role in building up the Junior Red Cross in many national societies, further internationalising the movement and providing a point of difference

in The Red Cross Movement
The American Red Cross in the last war of Cuban independence (1895–1898)
Francisco Javier Martínez

secondary constituent of the international Red Cross Movement. 6 Both authors point to the First World War as the turning point for the ARC. However, I will argue that it was the Cuban war that started its push for world humanitarian power. As I will try to demonstrate, this was a result of the ARC openly challenging for the first time both the model of colonial expansion practised by other national societies and the model of interstate collaboration set up and controlled by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) since the early days of the Geneva Conference

in The Red Cross Movement
George Washington and Anglo-American memory diplomacy, c.1890–1925
Sam Edwards

future plans: the National Society of Colonial Dames. 115 Founded in 1891, and with seven thousand members by 1913, 116 the Dames was one of several women’s patriotic societies that emerged at the end of the nineteenth century, among which were also the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR, 1890), the US Daughters of 1812 (1892), and the Daughters of the Confederacy (1894). While such groups initially shared some of their members with progressive-era women’s reform movements, by the First World War, and in the era of a vocal, virulent, and Jim Crow

in Culture matters
Rebecca Gill

admirers (some thought him a latter-day King Arthur), Loyd Lindsay stood proudly at the helm of a new organisation, the British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War. Established on the day that war was declared between Prussia and France, the NAS claimed allegiance to the newly signed Geneva Convention of 1864. Under its aegis, Loyd Lindsay and his fellow volunteers

in Calculating compassion
Topsy-Turvy
Tony Whitehead

by both the New York Film Critics Circle (who also cited Leigh as Best Director) and the National Society of Film Critics. Speculation that this was to be a harbinger of Oscar-night success proved inaccurate, however: the film was nominated in the four categories of original screenplay, art direction, costume design and make-up – and won only the last two. Its sole BAFTA award was again for make-up, despite nominations in four other categories, including the Alexander Korda Award for Best British Film. Evening Standard Awards for Best Film and Best Actor (Broadbent

in Mike Leigh
Shurlee Swain and Margot Hillel

child rescue organisations, founded in the second half of the nineteenth century: Dr Barnardo’s ( DBH ), the National Children’s Homes ( NCH ), the Church of England Waifs and Strays Society ( WSS ) and the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children ( NSPCC ). Rather than entering into the long-running debate as to whether they were primarily humanitarian agencies or agents of social control, or

in Child, nation, race and empire