, nurtured the mythology of the Great Queen, and
appropriated local traditions into an imperial culture. Colonial
officials developed the royal tour as a site of encounter where they
expected to control and display an iconic order of empire, free of the
everyday politics of rule.
The royal tours also reflected efforts by imperial
administrators and activists to naturalise British rule in Africa, South
Uncertainty is central to the governance of citizenship, but in ways that erase, even deny, this uncertainty. Uncertain citizenship investigates this uncertainty from the unique vantage point of ‘citizenisation’ – twenty-first-century integration and naturalisation measures that make and unmake citizens and migrants, while indefinitely holding many applicants for citizenship in what Anne-Marie Fortier calls the waiting room of citizenship. Fortier’s distinctive theory of citizenisation foregrounds how the full achievement of citizenship is a promise that is always deferred. This means that if migrants and citizens are continuously citizenised, so too are they migratised. Citizenisation and migratisation are intimately linked within the structures of racial governmentality that enables the citizenship of racially minoritised citizens to be questioned and that casts them as perpetual migrants. Drawing on multi-sited fieldwork with migrants applying for citizenship or settlement and with intermediaries of the state tasked with implementing citizenisation measures and policies, Fortier brings life to the waiting room of citizenship, giving rich empirical backing to her original theoretical claims. Scrutinising life in the waiting room enables Fortier to analyse how citizenship takes place, takes time and takes hold in ways that conform, exceed and confound frames of reference laid out in both citizenisation policies and taken-for-granted understandings of ‘the citizen’, ‘the migrant’, and their relationships to citizenship. Uncertain citizenship’s nuanced account of the social and institutional function of citizenisation and migratisation offers its readers a grasp of the array of racial inequalities that citizenisation produces and reproduces, while providing theoretical and empirical tools to address these inequalities.
Naturalisation of stateless Kurds and transitional justice in Syria
socio-political moment, Syrian Kurds found themselves faced with a
‘solution’ to their statelessness that came with lots
of uncertainties. At the time of writing, nine years after the
naturalisation and a time marked by armed conflict, the situation is
still unclear for Syrian Kurds in terms of their access to rights,
reparation, inclusion, and belonging, as well as the recognition of
The condom, gender and sexual
The previous chapter showed how theories of porn have inadvertently naturalised the male body and heterosexuality as primary
and authentic. This chapter shows how in the context of AIDS
sociologists and social theorists have similarly produced a naturalisation of the male body and male heterosexuality in their
interpretation of the condom in the context of AIDS.
Since the early 1990s a major concern in empirical studies and
analyses of heterosex has been and continues to be why heterosexual men do not wear condoms. In
Citizenship choices among the stateless youth in Estonia
In 1991, just after the
re-independence of Estonia from the Soviet Union, people who had
held Soviet citizenship – and were rendered stateless
– constituted 32% of the total population. In 2018, the
proportion was 6%, meaning that approximately 77,000 individuals had
not naturalised in twenty-eight years. An additional 18,000 young
citizenship debates (Khan 2014 ; Charalambous et al. 2015 ). They also exemplify the new ‘common sense’ around citizenship and citizenisation that has crystallised since the turn of the century in Western Europe; that is to say that the expectation that migrants should learn and speak a national language and learn and know about national values is taken as a given, incontestable requirement that ‘makes sense’.
In the policy world referred to here, ‘citizenisation’ is a shorthand for a range of pro-active ‘integration’ and ‘naturalisation’ measures
Patricia Brazil, Catherine Cosgrave, and Katie Mannion
different immigration permissions, as well as young people who had naturalised as Irish citizens. The research also documented the experiences of professionals, in particular social workers, guardians ad litem and youth advocates, who represent and support migrant children, in trying to support these young people to navigate the immigration system and/or access other services, especially third-level education.
Broadly, the research found that children, like adults, migrate for diverse and complex reasons; political, social and family life
. One must retain one's cultural identity while integrating into another. Failure to do so will determine that one is not ‘one of us’: one is an outsider.
This chapter examines, from a Nigerian-Irish perspective, three difficulties encountered by hyphenated citizens in their efforts to become accepted as belonging to the Irish nation. The first difficulty is legal in nature and lies within the host (Irish) society; there exist rules and processes pertaining to citizenship that remind immigrants who have become naturalised Irish citizens that
otherwise successful, driven, and disciplined are as likely to be rom-com
fodder for a dressing-down, as they are to be also offered possibilities
for dressing up. Whether the ‘Cinderella’ magic serves to glamourise
the dowdy woman, or bring the high-flyer down to earth, such narratives
put love and relationships at the centre of successful femininity, and
simultaneously naturalise gender polarisation. In romantic comedy, it
does not matter whether a woman is this or that; what matters is that
she is one thing and the man she meets is another. This is the core
imposed on their roles.
But other stories are also told in this book. The story of documents, as they circulate and generate actions, reactions and relations in and beyond the waiting room of citizenship. The story of language, of the English language in particular, and its historical formation as a ‘global’ good that is also a marker of national belonging and commitment. The story of historical and bureaucratic processes and technologies that naturalise not only the ideal of citizenship as the ‘gold standard’ but also categories, norms, locales: the