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Charles V. Reed

, nurtured the mythology of the Great Queen, and appropriated local traditions into an imperial culture. Colonial officials developed the royal tour as a site of encounter where they expected to control and display an iconic order of empire, free of the everyday politics of rule. The royal tours also reflected efforts by imperial administrators and activists to naturalise British rule in Africa, South

in Royal tourists, colonial subjects and the making of a British world, 1860–1911
Resilience and the Language of Compassion
Diego I. Meza

solution to avoid re-victimisation and to eliminate the causes of displacement. How can one explain the ambivalent relationship of the government of President Santos that sought to repair the displaced while at the same time maintaining the conditions that cause displacement? I propose humanitarian government as a mechanism of power that assembles resilience and the language of compassion to regulate this population. The humanitarian government, through resilience, naturalises the causes of displacement and emphasises the individual response of each person as a solution

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Swati Mehta Dhawan
Julie Zollmann

humanitarian funding. Under the Syrian Regional Response this is termed as ‘local solutions and opportunities’ rather than ‘integration’, a term the Government of Jordan resists as it calls for expanded refugee rights and facilitating assimilation and naturalisation ( UNHCR, 2014 ; 3RPSyria, 2021 ). In spite of the large numbers of refugees living in protracted displacement in Jordan, the state’s policies are still oriented towards providing

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Life in the waiting room

Uncertainty is central to the governance of citizenship, but in ways that erase, even deny, this uncertainty. Uncertain citizenship investigates this uncertainty from the unique vantage point of ‘citizenisation’ – twenty-first-century integration and naturalisation measures that make and unmake citizens and migrants, while indefinitely holding many applicants for citizenship in what Anne-Marie Fortier calls the waiting room of citizenship. Fortier’s distinctive theory of citizenisation foregrounds how the full achievement of citizenship is a promise that is always deferred. This means that if migrants and citizens are continuously citizenised, so too are they migratised. Citizenisation and migratisation are intimately linked within the structures of racial governmentality that enables the citizenship of racially minoritised citizens to be questioned and that casts them as perpetual migrants.

Drawing on multi-sited fieldwork with migrants applying for citizenship or settlement and with intermediaries of the state tasked with implementing citizenisation measures and policies, Fortier brings life to the waiting room of citizenship, giving rich empirical backing to her original theoretical claims. Scrutinising life in the waiting room enables Fortier to analyse how citizenship takes place, takes time and takes hold in ways that conform, exceed and confound frames of reference laid out in both citizenisation policies and taken-for-granted understandings of ‘the citizen’, ‘the migrant’, and their relationships to citizenship. Uncertain citizenship’s nuanced account of the social and institutional function of citizenisation and migratisation offers its readers a grasp of the array of racial inequalities that citizenisation produces and reproduces, while providing theoretical and empirical tools to address these inequalities.

Naturalisation of stateless Kurds and transitional justice in Syria
Haqqi Bahram

socio-political moment, Syrian Kurds found themselves faced with a ‘solution’ to their statelessness that came with lots of uncertainties. At the time of writing, nine years after the naturalisation and a time marked by armed conflict, the situation is still unclear for Syrian Kurds in terms of their access to rights, reparation, inclusion, and belonging, as well as the recognition of

in Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship
Nicole Vitellone

6 The condom, gender and sexual difference The previous chapter showed how theories of porn have inadvertently naturalised the male body and heterosexuality as primary and authentic. This chapter shows how in the context of AIDS sociologists and social theorists have similarly produced a naturalisation of the male body and male heterosexuality in their interpretation of the condom in the context of AIDS. Since the early 1990s a major concern in empirical studies and analyses of heterosex has been and continues to be why heterosexual men do not wear condoms. In

in Object matters
Citizenship choices among the stateless youth in Estonia
Maarja Vollmer

In 1991, just after the re-independence of Estonia from the Soviet Union, people who had held Soviet citizenship – and were rendered stateless – constituted 32% of the total population. In 2018, the proportion was 6%, meaning that approximately 77,000 individuals had not naturalised in twenty-eight years. An additional 18,000 young stateless

in Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship
Life in the waiting room
Anne-Marie Fortier

citizenship debates (Khan 2014 ; Charalambous et al. 2015 ). They also exemplify the new ‘common sense’ around citizenship and citizenisation that has crystallised since the turn of the century in Western Europe; that is to say that the expectation that migrants should learn and speak a national language and learn and know about national values is taken as a given, incontestable requirement that ‘makes sense’. In the policy world referred to here, ‘citizenisation’ is a shorthand for a range of pro-active ‘integration’ and ‘naturalisation’ measures

in Uncertain citizenship
Patricia Brazil
Catherine Cosgrave
, and
Katie Mannion

different immigration permissions, as well as young people who had naturalised as Irish citizens. The research also documented the experiences of professionals, in particular social workers, guardians ad litem and youth advocates, who represent and support migrant children, in trying to support these young people to navigate the immigration system and/or access other services, especially third-level education. Broadly, the research found that children, like adults, migrate for diverse and complex reasons; political, social and family life

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
Bashir Otukoya

. One must retain one's cultural identity while integrating into another. Failure to do so will determine that one is not ‘one of us’: one is an outsider. This chapter examines, from a Nigerian-Irish perspective, three difficulties encountered by hyphenated citizens in their efforts to become accepted as belonging to the Irish nation. The first difficulty is legal in nature and lies within the host (Irish) society; there exist rules and processes pertaining to citizenship that remind immigrants who have become naturalised Irish citizens that

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands