3033 The ancient Greeks
I stayed but one month with my wife and children until my inner spirit
(thymos) moved me to mount an expedition to Egypt with well-appointed
ships and my god-like companions. I acquired nine ships and swiftly the people
(laos) came together; then for six days I feasted my ready companions
(hetairoi), for I gave them many victims to sacrifice to the gods and for themselves to consume. On the seventh, we boarded and sailed on a fair north wind
from broad Crete. Easily we sat, as if
This book undertakes a consideration of the depiction of naval warfare within British and American cinema. The films (ranging from examples from the interwar period, the Second World War, the Cold War and contemporary cinema) encompass all areas of naval operations in war, and highlight varying institutional and aesthetic responses to navies and the sea in popular culture. Examination of the films centres on their similarities to and differences from the conventions of the war genre as described in earlier analyses, and seeks to determine whether the distinctive characteristics of naval film narratives justify their categorisation as a separate genre or sub-genre in popular cinema. The explicit factual bases and drama-documentary style of many key naval films (such as In Which We Serve, They Were Expendable and Das Boot) also require a consideration of them as texts for popular historical transmission. Their frequent reinforcement of establishment views of the past, which derives from their conservative ideological position towards national and naval culture, makes these films key texts for the consideration of national cinemas as purveyors of contemporary history as popularly conceived by filmmakers and received by audiences.
It has been accepted since antiquity that some restraint should be observed during armed conflict. This book examines the apparent dichotomy and introduces any study of the law of armed conflict by considering the nature and legality of war. The purpose of what is known as the law of armed conflict or, more commonly, the law of war is to reduce the horrors inherent therein to the greatest extent possible, bearing in mind the political purpose for which the war is fought, namely to achieve one's policies over one's enemies. The discussion on the history and sources of the law of armed conflict pays most attention to warfare on land because that is the region for which most agreements have been drawn up, although attention has been accorded to both aerial and naval warfare where it has been considered necessary. Traditionally, international law was divided into the law of war and the law of peace, with no intermediate stage between. Although diplomatic relations between belligerents are normally severed once a conflict has commenced, there remain a number of issues, not all of which are concerned with their inter-belligerent relations, which require them to remain in contact. War crimes are violations of the and customs of the law of armed conflict and are punishable whether committed by combatants or civilians, including the nationals of neutral states. The book also talks about the rights and duties of the Occupying Power, civil defence, branches of international law and prisoners of war.
warships and the resources and revenues to pay for craftsmen, labourers
and crews. Navalwarfare encouraged and was enhanced by fiscal structures,
although even the richest and most economically diverse of Greek poleis,
Athens, relied on its very wealthy men to perform trierarchies from their
own resources. Persia provided the impetus for the creation of large trireme
fleets in the Aegean and the development of a naval league to oppose it.
Athens was a major force within this Delian League, due to the foresight of
its leaders, the commitment of the democracy and the
alter the role of the sailor and his profession. ‘[T]he extensive and growing
adaptation of mechanical contrivances to the construction and the working of
ships will, for the future,’ he wrote, ‘give less scope in navalwarfare for superiority to be gained by nautical skill and indomitable courage working through
inferior instruments.’12 In 1864 that position was held by a minority in the
naval community, but that group grew in number.
As engineering specialists gained greater personal credibility and institutional authority, their role in the design of
Conscientious objectors and
revolution: world war and an
‘Buried the broken dreams of Ireland lie’1
The British restriction placed on passenger shipping in the North Sea
in 1914 was a timely reminder that war was escalating across
Europe with dire consequences. In February 1915, the German
government issued a declaration of more aggressive navalwarfare.
On 22 April, the German Embassy in Washington released a
statement which was duly published in newspapers across America:
Travellers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are
The ancient Greeks experienced war in many forms. By land and by sea, they conducted raids, ambushes, battles and sieges; they embarked on campaigns of intimidation, conquest and annihilation; they fought against fellow Greeks and non-Greeks. Drawing on literary, epigraphic and archaeological material, this wide-ranging synthesis looks at the practicalities of Greek warfare and its wider social ramifications. Alongside discussions of the nature and role of battle, logistics, strategy and equipment are examinations of other fundamentals of war: religious and economic factors, militarism and martial values, and the relationships between the individual and the community, before, during and after wars. The book takes account of the main developments of modern scholarship in the field, engaging with the many theories and interpretations that have been advanced in recent years.
involved in the
hostilities or non-naval powers, the Convention will be
applied. 107 In fact, practice illustrates that for the main
part the provisions in these Conventions are declaratory and
codificatory of customary law and are to be applied in navalwarfare. Naval personnel ignoring or breaching these rules or those
of a general character arising from customary or
manpower to the problems of navalwarfare. Its members judged
that the BIR had been a victim of novelty and Admiralty uncertainty about the role of scientists and engineers in governing invention and research.
The Navy up to quite a recent date has possessed no research institution and such establishment as now exist have grown up in spite of
little encouragement and the absence of any general plan. The Board
of Invention and research … has not received the full support of the
Admiralty … men of science willing to give their assistance have
not been put in the position
cross and of personnel wearing this insignia. A clarificatory document
was signed in 1868 79
which sought to extend the protection of the red cross to navalwarfare, but the
document never received a single ratification. The 1864 Convention was
amended or revised by later Geneva Conventions in 1906, 1929 and
1949 80 and
by the Protocols of 1977 81 additional to those Conventions. A third