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Religious culture and civic life in medieval northern Italy

Most people would agree that the hospital functions as one of the 'first duties of an organized society' as a public service for those members of the community who are in need. In the thirteenth century, hospitals represented a nexus of exchange between church officials, the community, the needy, and the pious or ambitious individual. This book presents a survey that offers an overview of the role of the hospital in affairs of the urban community, suggesting how changes within that community were reflected in the activities of the hospital. It locates the rise of the hospital movement in northern Italy within the context of the changing religious, social, and political environment of the city-states. The book introduces the hospital's central function in the distribution and administration of charity. It illustrates how the hospital and other charitable organizations played a role in the appropriation of power and influence by urban citizens. A comprehensive investigation of twelfth and thirteenth century hospitals' foundational charters follows. The book then delves into a detailed description of the physical plant of the hospital, the daily life of individuals, and rules and statutes followed by its members. It considers the social composition of donors, workers, and recipients of hospital services. Jurisdictional disputes among the city leaders, the community, individual religious orders, ecclesiastical authorities, and larger political forces. Finally, the book explores the process of consolidation and bureaucratization of hospitals in the fifteenth century and the emergence of state control over social services.

Protection of animals in nineteenth-century Britain

This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.

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Conflict, media and displacement in the twenty-first century
Kirsten Forkert
Federico Oliveri
Gargi Bhattacharyya
, and
Janna Graham

testimony to learn to participate in the co-production of such collective 4 Introduction accounts. Later chapters take up each of these themes in more detail. The representation of international events continues to replicate the representational frameworks of Empire. Mainstream media forms such as film and newspapers perpetuate depictions of most of the world as uncivilised and savage, of a world of victims and saviours, of civilising missions against inexplicable terror, of hordes of needy people who appear out of nowhere. There are few spaces to reflect on the longer

in How media and conflicts make migrants
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David Hardiman

for only a few famine victims in the immediate vicinity of the mission station. Colonel Bignall, the MBC commandant, had outdone him by making arrangements for about 250 needy people to be fed. The Mewar State authorities took no direct action in this area, as they considered that the responsibility lay with the local thakors. A few of these tried to give some help, but lacked the experience, ability

in Missionaries and their medicine
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Why gardening has limited success growing inclusive communities
Hannah Pitt

the street, whilst passers-​by could see the other gardens. Not all who were aware of a nearby garden realised they could visit or get involved; some said they did not understand their function or organisation. False impressions of what gardens were for led some to assume they were not intended for them. One neighbour of Garden one imagined the produce was only for ‘needy people’. A trainee there encountered a local resident who assumed people working there were doing community service following a criminal conviction. Those aware a community garden was available to

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
Chinese puzzles and global challenges
R. Bin Wong

government’s development of a granary system to store hundreds of thousands of tons of grain for sale and loan to needy people also depended on major campaigns. Since these campaigns were intermittent, people felt little need or desire to create clear principles for negotiating with officials over how much they owed in money or labour service. They tried whenever possible to evade or deflect the state’s demands, a practice far easier than attempting to develop formal and explicit rules to govern negotiations. The routine presence of the late imperial 107 Bayly 04_Tonra

in History, historians and development policy
Transcending the question of origins
Emna Mrabet

highly individualized acting performances by Sami Bouajila and Elodie Bouchez, Kechiche avoids the danger of stereotyping. This is primarily the story not of the migrant and the Frenchwoman, but of two needy people brought together by circumstance’ (2007: 309). Similarly, instead of emphasizing sociological issues, the director develops the plot of L’Esquive around the love triangle between the characters Magalie, Krimo, and Lydia. If Kechiche briefly rehearses a class stereotype in the opening shots, he does so to overturn it in order to suggest a different

in Reimagining North African Immigration
Heike Wieters

Eisenhower in 1953. 11 In this operation CARE and other private relief agencies had distributed government-donated foodstuffs and other goods worth some US$13.5 million to needy people all over the world. 12 Encouraged by the success of this type of private–public cooperation, and reacting to the financial promises from Washington, the agency prepared for a mission to Egypt in the summer of 1954. 13

in The NGO CARE and food aid From America, 1945–80
Sarah Lonsdale

speaking any English. He described her as having ‘a remarkable gift for helping and collecting young friends’. Another refugee who Wilson helped was Tomas Bartoli, who escaped to England from the Spanish Civil War and lived with four young Basques in her basement. Of her he wrote: ‘She was an extremely loveable person. Her qualities included, in very high degrees, intelligence, goodness, generosity, idealism and the will to serve needy people and defend noble causes.’ 87 According to her niece, her ‘adopted’ family was much more important to her than her real one: ‘the

in Rebel women between the wars
Heike Wieters

CARE’s executive management underscored, CARE was effectively helping millions of needy people through excess food commodities. Surplus commodities had become increasingly popular with recipient governments, which were ready to bear part of the administrative costs involved in food distribution. In addition, there was an intrinsic relationship between public subsidy and CARE’s organizational size, as

in The NGO CARE and food aid From America, 1945–80