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Languages of colonial conflict after 1900

Stirring language and appeals to collective action were integral to the battles fought to defend empires and to destroy them. These wars of words used rhetoric to make their case. This book explores the arguments fought over empire in a wide variety of geographic, political, social and cultural contexts. Essays range from imperialism in the early 1900s, to the rhetorical battles surrounding European decolonization in the late twentieth century. Rhetoric is one of the weapons of war. Conquest was humiliating for Afrikaners but they regained a degree of sovereignty, with the granting of responsible government to the new colonies in 1907 and independence with the Act of Union of 1910. Liberal rhetoric on the Transvaal Crisis was thus neither an isolated debate nor simply the projection of existing political concerns onto an episode of imperial emergency. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's principles of intervention in response to crimes against civilization, constituted a second corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The rhetorical use of anti-imperial demonology was useful in building support for New Deal legislation. The book argues that rhetoric set out to portray the events at Mers el-Kebir within a culturally motivated framework, drawing on socially accepted 'truths' such as historic greatness and broad themes of hope. Now, over 175 years of monarchical presence in New Zealand the loyalty may be in question, devotion scoffed, the sycophantic language more demure and colloquialized, the medium of expression revolutionized and deformalized, but still the rhetoric of the realm remains in New Zealand.

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William Welstead

In Chapter 8, the reach of poetry, agricultural practice, breeds of livestock and critical analysis across the English-speaking world is examined. While reference was made to postcolonial readings in the above discussion on poetry in Wales and Scotland, this chapter follows those who were dispossessed during the Clearances or for personal or economic reasons made the journey to the new colonies. As agricultural improvement developed in Britain, so these ideas, animals and grass varieties spread to the New World. The pioneers also set about writing their own founding myths, which in many cases were contradictory. Context is provided from readings of writers and historians including Mary Hunter Austin, Marsha Weisiger, Mary Weaks-Baxter, Sally McMurry and Virginia de John Anderson. Readings of a small number of poets including Hershman John, Donald Hall and Cilla McQueen are compared with the developing narratives and implicit values of environmental discourse in the countries where they made their home. Adding a colonial perspective greatly increases the complexity of what is already a complex field of study.

in Writing on sheep
The discourse of modernization in the concentration camps of the South African War, 1899–1902
Elizabeth van Heyningen

instead of deteriorate physically and morally if fed free.’ 59 But it was not only the importance of labour in its own right that the officials valued. For de Lotbinière the black refugees, ‘all farm boys’ – were a ‘valuable asset’, to be held in trust for the civil administration of the new colonies. Without them the development of agriculture in the new colonies would

in Rhetorics of empire
Bill Jones

and state; in the seventeenth century, conflict between king and Parliament was settled in the form of a limited monarchy; while the nineteenth century saw the gradual expansion of the franchise, to include all classes of voters by the early twentieth century. Empire . This, arguably unjustifiable, centuries-long adventure proved hugely popular for a nation with a strong maritime tradition. Thousands flocked to live in the new colonies and enjoy a standard of life much higher than back home. Moreover, the British tended to exult in their status as the centre of a

in British politics today
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The empire as a material construct
Benjamin Steiner

). 5 Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, Essai sur les avantages à retirer de colonies nouvelles dans les circonstance présentes, par le citoyen Talleyrand. Lu à la séance publique de l’Institut national le 15 méssidor an 5 [1797]; published in English as ‘An Essay on the Advantages to Be Derived from New Colonies, in the Present Circumstances’, The Colonial Journal 4 (1816), 322–8. 6

in Building the French empire, 1600–1800
Peter D.G. Thomas

Atlantic seaboard from Newfoundland to Georgia. The problem of how to organise and control the new territory loomed large in the public mind, but a preliminary settlement was to be promptly enacted by a Royal Proclamation of 1763. Three new colonies were created, one of Quebec from the old French colony and restricted to the St Lawrence valley, and two from territory ceded by Spain. These were East Florida, roughly equivalent to the modern state of Florida, and West Florida, a coastal strip along the Gulf of Mexico to the mouth of the Mississippi. Since nearly all the

in George III
Open Access (free)
‘If they treat the Indians humanely, all will be well’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain

Elliot had been pursuing, designed to mollify the resentments of tax-payers both at home and abroad yet fully in accord with the programme of civilisation advocated by both the missionaries and the APS. Parallel priorities from the outset underpinned Indigenous policy in the new colonies in the west. Although incoming governors were still instructed to protect the interests of Indigenous people they were

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Silvia Salvatici

colonised subjects. The interests of the home country’s inhabitants in the populations of the East or West Indies, Sierra Leone or Australia derived most of all from the conviction that acquiring new colonies meant taking on, as civilised countries, certain responsibilities. The concrete content of these responsibilities was discussed, starting with the value the now moral public recognised in compassion and benevolence. The prevailing idea was that the imperial government had an obligation to deal with the colonised subjects’ living conditions, of understanding the

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
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Dana Arnold

postcolonial and the postmodern’, Bhabha writes: ‘a range of contemporary critical theories suggest that it is from those who have suffered the sentence of history – subjugation, domination, diaspora, displacement – that we learn our most enduring lessons for living and thinking’. In the light of Bhabha’s ideas the wide range of voices from former new colonies, the Indian subcontinent or South America could

in Cultural identities and the aesthetics of Britishness
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Vagrancy and imperial legality in the trans-Tasman colonial world, 1860s–1914
Catharine Coleborne

belonged in no place. 16 As legal historian Alex Castles points out, however, Blackstone also identified that new colonies would come to set out specific legal provisions for different aspects of social life. 17 Law was also a ‘central mechanism’ of the colonial project, integral to the creation of knowledge about people and populations, allocating control, and constructing

in New Zealand’s empire