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‘Europeanisation’ or bilateral preferences?
Martin Dangerfield

10 Martin Dangerfield New member states’ economic relations with Russia: ‘Europeanisation’ or bilateral preferences? This chapter examines connections between economic issues and the various challenges to, and conundrums of, Europeanisation associated with the EU’s relations with Eastern neighbours. It focuses on trade between EU member states and Russia, which until recently had been growing steadily, with particularly rapid expansion after the EU’s eastward enlargement in 2004. The significance of the Russian market means that disruptions to trade caused by

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
Wider Europe, weaker Europe?

The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.

Author:

At the heart of the European integration process is the political economy debate over whether the EU should be a market-making project, or if it should combine this with integration in employment and social policy. What has been the impact of the 2004 and 2007 rounds of enlargement upon the political economy of European integration? EU enlargement, the clash of capitalisms and the European social dimension analyses the impact of the 2004 and 2007 enlargements upon the politics of European integration within EU employment and social policy. This book analyses the main policy negotiations in the field and analyses the political positions and contributions of the Central and Eastern European Member States. Through an analyses of the negotiations of the Services Directive, the revision of the Working Time Directive and the Europe 2020 poverty target, the book argues that the addition of the Central and Eastern European states has strengthened liberal forces at the EU level and undermined integration with EU employment and social policy.

Alistair J.K. Shepherd

required to develop greater cohesion? The perspectives brought by the new member states (NMS) may complicate the questions, but may also provide new solutions. The risks of enlargement were evident even before the NMS had formally joined the EU. During the 2003 Iraq crisis, all the CEE states joining, or hoping to join, the EU supported US policy, while a slim majority of the pre-2004 EU member states (EU

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
Paul Copeland

, albeit with Denmark, Sweden and the UK declining to join. As part of the accession negotiations, all of the 2004 and 2007 new Member States are required to join the Eurozone. Of these twelve new Member States, Cyprus, Estonia, Malta, Slovakia and Slovenia have so far met the convergence criteria and been able to join. The pooling of sovereignty and the establishing of a supranational authority within monetary policy necessitated a simultaneous level of integration in the area of fiscal policy. Supranational integration within fiscal policy proved itself fraught with

in EU enlargement, the clash of capitalisms and the European social dimension
Abstract only
Uwe Puetter

economic growth above the EU average over a longer period of time in order to close the gap with the old EU economies. In general, the 2004 EU enlargement readjusts the relationship between euro area countries and the out-group towards EMU’s original flexibility regime (see Chapter 2). This regime was built on the assumption that the exclusion of some member states from the single currency would only be temporary. In comparison with the euro-sceptic movement within the old EU-15, the new member states are eager to join the single currency. It is, therefore, necessary to

in The Eurogroup
The Eurozone crisis, Brexit, and possible disintegration
Peter J. Verovšek

integration through a common historical narrative. 39 On the contrary, the accession of the postcommunist east posed a severe challenge to the classic narrative of integration and the Holocaust as ‘Europe’s entry ticket.’ Given these difficulties it is no longer clear whether the EU can really be thought of as a common ‘community’ or a ‘space’ of memory. 40 The clashes over the past brought on by the accessions of new member-states since 2004 opened an important east–west fault line within the EU. While both sides see the past as a constructive resource, they understand

in Memory and the future of Europe
The EU’s emerging common external border management
Jörg Monar

challenges for EU external border controls. Not only has it lengthened the external land and sea borders of the Union by several hundreds of kilometres, but many of the new member states – facing organisational, personnel, equipment and funding problems – still have to struggle to meet the standards of external border control and safety that current member states, mostly in the context of the Schengen

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
Abstract only
Security and enlargement into the twenty-first century
Alistair J.K. Shepherd

in Chapter 2 and David Brown in Chapter 3 . In the context of ESDP, enlargement presented an opportunity to reinvigorate the waning political will to develop the necessary military capabilities to complement the EU’s new and existing civilian capabilities. The new member states showed genuine will to reform and improve their military capabilities to adjust to the changed security environment, even if they barely had the

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
Abstract only
The security implications of EU enlargement
David Brown

nature of relations with the aforementioned states, particularly given certain new member states’ role as cheerleaders for continued enlargement, both east – towards Ukraine, in the case of Poland – and south, into the Balkans. Continuing the process of enlargement, even beyond the stated ambition to embrace Romania and Bulgaria by 2007 and, potentially Turkey and Croatia in the longer term, will, in

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement