relations with Russia: ‘Europeanisation’
or bilateral preferences?
This chapter examines connections between economic issues and the various
challenges to, and conundrums of, Europeanisation associated with the EU’s
relations with Eastern neighbours. It focuses on trade between EU member
states and Russia, which until recently had been growing steadily, with
particularly rapid expansion after the EU’s eastward enlargement in 2004.
The significance of the Russian market means that disruptions to trade
The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.
At the heart of the European integration process is the political economy debate over whether the EU should be a market-making project, or if it should combine this with integration in employment and social policy. What has been the impact of the 2004 and 2007 rounds of enlargement upon the political economy of European integration? EU enlargement, the clash of capitalisms and the European social dimension analyses the impact of the 2004 and 2007 enlargements upon the politics of European integration within EU employment and social policy. This book analyses the main policy negotiations in the field and analyses the political positions and contributions of the Central and Eastern European Member States. Through an analyses of the negotiations of the Services Directive, the revision of the Working Time Directive and the Europe 2020 poverty target, the book argues that the addition of the Central and Eastern European states has strengthened liberal forces at the EU level and undermined integration with EU employment and social policy.
required to develop greater cohesion? The perspectives brought by the
newmemberstates (NMS) may complicate the questions, but may also
provide new solutions.
The risks of enlargement were evident even before the NMS
had formally joined the EU. During the 2003 Iraq crisis, all the CEE
states joining, or hoping to join, the EU supported US policy, while a
slim majority of the pre-2004 EU member states (EU
, albeit with Denmark, Sweden and the UK declining to join. As part
of the accession negotiations, all of the 2004 and 2007 newMemberStates
are required to join the Eurozone. Of these twelve newMemberStates,
Cyprus, Estonia, Malta, Slovakia and Slovenia have so far met the
convergence criteria and been able to join.
The pooling of sovereignty and the establishing of a supranational
authority within monetary policy necessitated a simultaneous level of
integration in the area of fiscal policy. Supranational integration within
fiscal policy proved itself fraught with
economic growth above the EU average over
a longer period of time in order to close the gap with the old EU
In general, the 2004 EU enlargement readjusts the relationship between
euro area countries and the out-group towards EMU’s original flexibility
regime (see Chapter 2). This regime was built on the assumption that the
exclusion of some member states from the single currency would only be
temporary. In comparison with the euro-sceptic movement within the old
EU-15, the newmemberstates are eager to join the single currency. It is,
therefore, necessary to
The Eurozone crisis, Brexit, and possible disintegration
Peter J. Verovšek
integration through a common historical narrative. 39 On the contrary, the accession of the postcommunist east posed a severe challenge to the classic narrative of integration and the Holocaust as ‘Europe’s entry ticket.’ Given these difficulties it is no longer clear whether the EU can really be thought of as a common ‘community’ or a ‘space’ of memory. 40
The clashes over the past brought on by the accessions of newmember-states since 2004 opened an important east–west fault line within the EU. While both sides see the past as a constructive resource, they understand
The European Union (EU) is faced by the Eurozone crisis, the rise of anti-EU populism and 'Brexit'. In its immediate neighbourhood it is confronted by a range of challenges and threats. This book explores the origins of the term 'Europeanisation' and the way in which its contemporary iteration-EU-isation-has become associated with the normative power of the EU. The concept of European identity is discussed, with an indication that there are different levels of identity of which a European consciousness can be just one. An overview of different mechanisms the EU uses to promote EU-isation in the neighbourhood and a discussion on the limits of conditionality when membership is not on offer is also included. The book discusses these themes in more detail. It powerfully states the salience of Russia in establishing an alternative geopolitical pole to the EU. The presence of Russia as the Eurasian Economic Union appears to play the role of being a way of preserving traditional conservative values in contrast to the uncomfortable challenges of EU-isation. The Balkans' and Turkey's reception of EU-isation is not affected by the experience of being in-betweeners. The book examines the issue of EU-isation and the relationship between values (norms), interests and identity based on various sectors/themes which cut across different neighbours and are core elements in their relations with the EU.
The EU’s emerging common external border management
challenges for EU
external border controls. Not only has it lengthened the external land
and sea borders of the Union by several hundreds of kilometres, but many
of the newmemberstates – facing organisational, personnel,
equipment and funding problems – still have to struggle to meet
the standards of external border control and safety that current member
states, mostly in the context of the Schengen
Security and enlargement into the twenty-first century
Alistair J.K. Shepherd
in Chapter 2 and David Brown in Chapter 3 . In the context of ESDP, enlargement presented an
opportunity to reinvigorate the waning political will to develop the
necessary military capabilities to complement the EU’s new and
existing civilian capabilities. The newmemberstates showed genuine
will to reform and improve their military capabilities to adjust to the
changed security environment, even if they barely had the