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The case of Ann Izzard is hardly a severe instance among post-Enlightenment witchcraft episodes. By the early nineteenth century, the symbiotic relationship between elite and non-elite sections of society where witchcraft is concerned has changed, and the differing views of magic, evil and causation held by the authorities and by those over whom they had dominion play out in significantly different ways. Among the villagers of Great Paxton, the assaults were considered neither violent outrages, revenge attacks nor irrational outbursts. The result of the hybridized situation, with institutional opinion totally transformed, but village-level perspectives largely unchanged, did not in the end spare Ann Izzard pain, humiliation and actual harm, although it very probably spared her life. Moreover, it is a case that highlights how profoundly ingrained traditional views remained among the populace as a whole, and how quickly such views could be turned into ostensive action.

in Witchcraft Continued
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Cohabiting as husband and wife in nineteenth-century England

This is a book-length study of cohabitation in nineteenth-century England, based on research into the lives of hundreds of couples. ‘Common-law’ marriages did not have any legal basis, so the Victorian courts had to wrestle with unions that resembled marriage in every way, yet did not meet its most basic requirements. The majority of those who lived in irregular unions did so because they could not marry legally. Others, though, chose not to marry, from indifference, from class differences, or because they dissented from marriage for philosophical reasons. This book looks at each motivation in turn, highlighting class, gender and generational differences, as well as the reactions of wider kin and community. It shows how these couples slowly widened the definition of legal marriage, preparing the way for the more substantial changes of the twentieth century.

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Cricket, Culture and Society

Sports history offers many profound insights into the character and complexities of modern imperial rule. This book examines the fortunes of cricket in various colonies as the sport spread across the British Empire. It helps to explain why cricket was so successful, even in places like India, Pakistan and the West Indies where the Anglo-Saxon element remained in a small minority. The story of imperial cricket is really about the colonial quest for identity in the face of the colonisers' search for authority. The cricket phenomenon was established in nineteenth-century England when the Victorians began glorifying the game as a perfect system of manners, ethics and morals. Cricket has exemplified the colonial relationship between England and Australia and expressed imperialist notions to the greatest extent. In the study of the transfer of imperial cultural forms, South Africa provides one of the most fascinating case studies. From its beginnings in semi-organised form through its unfolding into a contemporary internationalised structure, Caribbean cricket has both marked and been marked by a tight affiliation with complex social processing in the islands and states which make up the West Indies. New Zealand rugby demonstrates many of the themes central to cricket in other countries. While cricket was played in India from 1721 and the Calcutta Cricket Club is probably the second oldest cricket club in the world, the indigenous population was not encouraged to play cricket.

Catholic women religious in nineteenth-century England and Wales

Roman Catholic women's congregations are an enigma of nineteenth century social history. Over 10,000 women, establishing and managing significant Catholic educational, health care and social welfare institutions in England and Wales, have virtually disappeared from history. In nineteenth-century England, representations of women religious were ambiguous and contested from both within and without the convent. This book places women religious in the centre of nineteenth-century social history and reveals how religious activism shaped the identity of Catholic women religious. It is devoted to evolution of religious life and the early monastic life of the women. Catholic women were not pushed into becoming women religious. On the basis of their available options, they chose a path that best suited their personal, spiritual, economic and vocational needs. The postulancy and novitiate period formed a rite of passage that tested the vocation of each aspirant. The book explores the religious activism of women religious through their missionary identity and professional identity. The labour of these women was linked to their role as evangelisers. The book deals with the development of a congregation's corporate identity which brought together a disparate group of women under the banner of religious life. It looks specifically at class and ethnicity and the women who entered religious life, and identifies the source of authority for the congregation and the individual sister.

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‘works of mercy’. Their work and the work of other active simple-vowed women religious was a striking, visible and dynamic factor in the growth of philanthropy in nineteenth-century England. Despite this, the philanthropic and evangelical activity of women religious is virtually invisible in historical texts.2 The persistent image of women religious projected in these texts was of women with ‘eyes cast down’, subservient and obedient to a church hierarchy that denied or limited their public voice. In addressing the needs of their church, nineteenth-century women

in Contested identities

adulation accorded in the nineteenth century to their descendant Alfred. This chapter has outlined the general conditions and contexts which allowed the cult of an Anglo-Saxon king to flourish in nineteenth-century England. What it has not fully answered, however, is the question of why that Saxon king was Alfred. The answer to this seems to reside in the sheer amount and variety of source materials available for his life – a body of Anglo-Saxon, late medieval and early modern texts that made Alfred the most documented secular character in pre-Conquest English history

in ‘England’s darling’
Politics, reform and the demise of medico-gentility

be fully understood as constitutive of a much wider transformation in the cultures and politics of early nineteenth-century England. As Philip Harling has suggested, later eighteenth-century assaults on ‘Old Corruption’, The asylum revolution 105 such as those initiated by Christopher Wyvil and the Yorkshire Association, were primarily concerned with ‘economical reform’, with ridding the state of jobbery and financial inefficiency.129 Such concerns were clearly evident in Mason’s and his associates’ initial objection to Hunter’s proposed salary in the late 1780s

in Performing medicine
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degrees of prohibited marriage) based on Leviticus had been hotly debated throughout northern Europe at least since the Reformation, and by the end of the eighteenth century Continental civil law, not religious law, came to define incest increasingly in terms of consanguinity.92 The narrowing legal definition of incest to exclude relationships of affinity was, however, not completely abandoned in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century England. The closeness of this mixed-sex relationship and the blurring between consanguineous and affinal kin made brother–sister interaction

in Siblinghood and social relations in Georgian England
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this is what was taught to them in the schools’. Meg Gomersall, Working-Class Girls in Nineteenth-Century England (London: Macmillan Press, 1997), p. 118. 27 DHM: C3 ‘Acts of Superior Authority 1858–1920’, 24 September 1881. 28 John P. Marmion, ‘Cornelia Connelly’s Work in Education, 1848–1879’, doctoral thesis, University of Manchester, 1984, p. 299. 29 SMG: I/D/17 ‘Foundation in Woodford Green 1894’, 2 August 1895. 30 [Wheaton], 1924, pp. 104–5. Forming a novice 95 These are the virtues they ought to try to practise else they are not to become Novices.31 What

in Contested identities
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Professional stress and suicide

notes, and while references to impugned masculinity are implicit in fears of financial failure, allusions to competitive practice are quite plain. The latter are particularly concerned with intra-generational conflict, where established medical men allegedly strove to curb the incomes, energies, and opportunities of medical students or junior colleagues. This chapter therefore first examines the role and visibility of the inquest in determining acts of suicide in nineteenth-century England and Wales. It then looks in more detail at the 285 medical deaths investigated

in Medical misadventure in an age of professionalisation, 1780–1890